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Mapping of spatial distribution of alkaline lakes of the Brazilian Pantanal using optical and interferometric remote sensing

Grant number: 20/14733-3
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Post-Doctorate
Effective date (Start): February 01, 2021
Effective date (End): January 31, 2022
Field of knowledge:Physical Sciences and Mathematics - Geosciences
Principal Investigator:Adolpho José Melfi
Grantee:Omar Ali Ahmed Mohamed
Home Institution: Instituto de Energia e Ambiente (IEE). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). São Paulo , SP, Brazil
Associated research grant:16/14227-5 - Climatic changes and environmental impacts in wetlands of Pantanal region (Brazil): quantification, control factors and long term temporal modeling, AP.PFPMCG.TEM

Abstract

The Pantanal wetland is responsible for the emission of various greenhouse gases (N2O, CO2 and CH4), mainly due to the geochemical conditions of redox and pH. Some studies carried out in this region have shown that the level of salinity in the lagoons can result in a very strong reactivity in terms of the production of greenhouse gases, which reinforces the importance of understanding in more detail the spatio-temporal distribution of saline and freshwater lakes of the Pantanal. In this sense, remote sensing data from different sensors can be applied to classify the lakes according to the level of salinity, suspended organic matter, amount of plant biomass and degree of isolation from the main drainage system. Therefore, this project proposes to apply data from passive multispectral and active remote sensing (SAR), in periods of flood and receding waters of the Nhecolândia Region in southern Pantanal. A multisensor approach should be adopted, comprising images obtained by the Sentinel-2, CBERS-4, ALOS (PALSAR) and TanDEM-X sensor systems, which will allow to segment the lakes according to their typical spectral signatures, relative water level in periods of flood and ebb, as well as to perform the detailed mapping of local geormophology. Such factors are essential to understand the processes associated with the origin of saline, brackish and freshwater lakes of the Pantanal, a key aspect to understand the role of such lakes in the emission of greenhouse gases.