Cholelithiasis is a disease of the digestive system with high prevalence in the world. In Brazil, it is a routine condition, whose studies suggest a prevalence of around 10% of adults. Bacterial colonization of bile and gallstones can occur in cholelithiasis and occurs when there is cholestasis and bacterial proliferation. This proliferation is facilitated by the ability of some bacteria to adhere (in the form of biofilm). There are also lithogenic processes that involve bacterial participation. Recent studies have shown changes in the gallbladder microbiota of patients undergoing cholecystectomy due to complicated and uncomplicated cholelithiasis, which can impact empirical treatment with antibiotics. Objective: This study intends to characterize the microorganisms collected, their sensitivity profile, clinical manifestations and their influences on the epidemiology of patients undergoing cholecystectomy due to complicated and uncomplicated cholelithiasis. In addition, the study proposes an identification of the bacteria present in bile, which can help in understanding the lithogenic processes and bacterial colonization in the calculations and improve medical care for these patients. Methods: from February 2021 to December 2021, gallstones and bile samples from all patients over 14 years of age with cholelithiasis who undergo cholecystectomy due to uncomplicated cholelithiasis or acute cholecystitis will be analyzed at the Microbiology Department of Santa Casa de São Paulo School of Medical Sciences for microbial culture. Microbial culture, identification and antibiotic resistance testing will be performed according to a standard routine.
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