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Impact of enriched milk naturally with linseed and soybean oil, over gene expression and immune system

Grant number: 19/22764-9
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate
Effective date (Start): September 01, 2021
Effective date (End): February 28, 2023
Field of knowledge:Agronomical Sciences - Animal Husbandry - Animal Nutrition and Feeding
Principal researcher:Arlindo Saran Netto
Grantee:Leriana Garcia Reis
Home Institution: Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos (FZEA). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Pirassununga , SP, Brazil

Abstract

Saturated fatty acids are correlated with several health problems such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer and for this reason, there is an interest in improving the lipid profile of foods, increasing the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids and among them the omega-3 family is the one of greatest interest. This fact is due to Western diets having a disproportionate omega-6/omega-3 ratio and this fact is linked to metabolic disorders. Bovine milk has a large proportion of saturated fatty acids, in addition to being rich in several nutrients, and some professionals have recommended removing the milk or consuming the skimmed. In studies carried out in Brazil, the supplementation of diets of dairy cows with vegetable oils and oilseed grains rich in fatty acids (AG), has been shown to be effective in promoting positive changes in the AG profile of milk fat, making it more suitable and healthy for human consumption, as in the work previously done (Process nº 2015/19393-8). Therefore, the functionality of milk will be checked to see if there is an effect on the expression of genes that regulate lipid metabolism and the immune system. The material comes from Reis's master's work (2019) conducted with 2 batches of Large White x Landrace swine females who received milk enriched with sources of É-3 and É-6, batch A (n = 30) remaining from 34 days of age (nursery phase) until delivery and batch B (n = 30) females that were slaughtered at 28 ± 3 days of gestation. The analyzes seek to answer the hypothesis that supplementation in the diet using milk with a higher concentration of PUFA É-3 reduces the expression of lipogenic genes, thus contributing to a lower risk of obesity; in addition to contributing to a better immune response aiming at autoimmune or allergic diseases and changing the profile of tissue fatty acids. Thinking about the importance of dairy activity to Brazil and milk with its relevance in the human health diet, the present work aims to determine whether the dietary supplementation of milk enriched with PUFA É-3 or É-6 alters the expression of genes that they control lipid oxidation and lipogenesis; modifies the production of eicosanoids that affect the immune system; promotes changes in hemolytic activity of the alternative pathway of the complement system; causes a replacement of the fatty acids that make up the adipose tissue. (AU)

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