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Chemical-analytical characterization of waste from the food industry

Grant number: 22/01567-3
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Scientific Initiation
Effective date (Start): March 01, 2022
Effective date (End): February 28, 2023
Field of knowledge:Agronomical Sciences - Food Science and Technology - Food Engineering
Principal researcher:Tânia Forster Carneiro
Grantee:Matheus Queiroz
Home Institution: Faculdade de Engenharia de Alimentos (FEA). Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP). Campinas , SP, Brazil
Associated research grant:18/14938-4 - Waste2energy: integration of supercritical technologies and anaerobic digestion through an automated system for the production of biofuel precursors, AP.JP2

Abstract

The main focus is on the so-called precursors: carbohydrates, lignin, oils, and proteins, and the combination of biotechnological and chemical conversions of substances to obtain intermediate and final products, which were found in liquid, solid, and gaseous states.The main objective of the activities to be carried out by the scientific initiation student will be the characterization and pre-processing of the initial raw materials (orange peel, lemon peel, apple peel, malt bagasse, açaí) and the final products obtained in the hydrolysis and/or anaerobic digestion.A flowchart of chemical analyzes is shown in Figure 1. In order to standardize and homogenize the raw material, the following tests will be carried out to determine the methodology for pre-treatment of the samples: grinding tests, washing tests. After the pre-treatment, the samples will be weighed on a semi-analytical scale (Marte, model AS 2000 ± 0.01g, ARTLAB, São Paulo, SP) and immediately packed in plastic bags and kept in a freezer (Metalfrio, model DA 420, São Paulo, SP) at -10 -18°C. An exhaustive characterization of each raw material will be carried out in terms of moisture content, starch, lipids, ash, total protein, fibers, reducing and total sugars, cellulose content, carbon content, hemicellulose and lignins (NELSON, 1944; MILLER, 1959); AOAC, 1997, ZHAO et al., 2009b). All raw materials will be used in natura. Other analyzes may be performed using supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and/or liquid chromatography according to the methodology of MIYAZAWA and FUNAZUKURI (2005). The final products obtained in this process will be divided into: liquid fraction, solid fraction and biogas. All products will be characterized in order to study the efficiency of the process (SCHACHT et al, 2008). The gas samples will be analyzed immediately after the experiment in a GC-Gas Chromatograph. The results will make it possible to calculate the different parameters of process efficiency: degree of hydrolysis (%), yield in reducing sugars and total reducing sugars (%), carbon gasification rate (CGR), hydrogen gasification rate (GH), of gasification efficiency (EG), carbon gasification efficiency rate (EGC). (AU)

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