The fetal programming hypothesis suggests that stimuli or aggressions during intrauterine life can result in permanent alterations in the physiology and metabolism of the offspring, increasing the risk of diseases in adult life. Changes in miRNA expression patterns are considered molecular mechanisms responsible for this programming. Previous studies have shown that maternal periodontal disease (PD) promotes insulin resistance, increases in plasma cytokine concentrations, reduces GLUT4 content, its translocation rate to the plasma membrane and its expression in its adult offspring. Furthermore, maternal periodontal disease was able to activate inflammatory pathways in the skeletal muscle tissue of adult offspring, this activation was confirmed by the increased expression of TNF-±, NF-ºBp65, NF-ºBp50, IKK±/² and ERK1/2. However, there was no change in the DNA methylation of the GLUT4 gene and in the expression of JNK in the adult offspring. Through these results, it was possible to infer that one of the reasons for the reduction of GLUT4 expression in the muscle tissue of adult rats offspring of rats with PD occurred through the activation of inflammatory pathways. Such findings highlight the need for further studies to verify other mechanisms involved, such as miRNA patterns, in these alterations. Therefore, the aim of the present study will be to evaluate in adult rats, offspring of rats with periodontal disease: the global expression of miRNAs in gastrocnemius muscle tissue. The rats will be divided into two groups: 1) with periodontal disease (PD), in which this disease will be induced by ligature with silk thread around the 1st lower molar; 2) control rats (CN). After 7 days of placing the ligature, the rats of both groups will be placed for mating, verifying daily, by vaginal smear, the day of mating. When the male offspring of these rats are 75 days old, the following experiments will be carried out: a) analysis of the global expression of miRNAs (by the microarray technique) in gastrocnemius muscle tissue.
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