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ANALYSIS OF SUBCUTANEOUS AND VISCERAL ADIPOSITY IN COMMUNITY-DWELLING ELDERLY WITH ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE AND COGNITIVELY PRESERVED.

Grant number: 23/05662-3
Support Opportunities:Scholarships in Brazil - Scientific Initiation
Effective date (Start): September 01, 2023
Effective date (End): August 31, 2024
Field of knowledge:Health Sciences - Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy
Principal Investigator:Márcia Regina Cominetti
Grantee:Eduarda Senni da Silva
Host Institution: Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde (CCBS). Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCAR). São Carlos , SP, Brazil

Abstract

Introduction: The population growth of the elderly has required greater attention to diseases related to aging and their risk factors. Although there are studies that show the relationship between adiposity and Alzheimer's disease (AD), there is a lack ofconclusive results on the subject, making efficient management impossible. Thus, the proposals analyzed in this study seek to understand the link between AD and body fat levels, in order to find information capable of subsidizing the relationship between both conditions. Objective: The objective is to compare subcutaneous (central and peripheral) and visceral adiposity, as well as the body fat index, among community-dwelling elderly with preserved cognition (CP) and with AD. In addition to correlating them with the severity of AD (mild and moderate phases) and investigating possible differences compared by sex in each group. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study with 63 participants, equally divided into three groups: elderly with CP, elderly with mild AD and elderly with moderate AD, of both genders and aged 65 years or older. The diagnosis of AD will follow the criteria established by the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The adiposity of the participants will be measured by the Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry device. Anthropometric measurements will also be collected. To classify AD staging, the Mini Mental State Examination, the Clinical Assessment of Dementia, the Geriatric Depression Scale and the Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire will be applied. The level of physical activity will be collected using the Modified Baecke Questionnaire for the Elderly. Data analysis will be performed using SPSS 20.0 software. The normality and homogeneity of variances will be checked by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Levene tests, respectively. In the comparison between groups, one-way ANOVA will be used for quantitative variables and the Chi-Square test of association for categorical variables. The variation between adiposity and AD will be observed by Pearson's variation test. If there is a diet, a multiple linear regression model will be used to verify if there is an association between the presence of AD and the percentage of fat. The significance level adopted for all analyzes will be 5%. Expected results: It is believed that subcutaneous fat (peripheral and central) and, especially visceral fat, will be higher in elderly with AD when compared to the PC group, regardless of the level of physical activity, since adiposity, as a risk factor for insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, seems to increase amyloid deposits in the brain, resulting in AD.For the same reason, it is believed that the values of the body fat index will be higher, being fat mass divided by height (kg/m2), in individuals with AD. Therefore, it is also expected that these findings will be influenced by the progression of AD, being more intense in the elderly with moderate AD and in the female group, since estrogen loss after menopause seems to contribute significantly to cognitive decline and the risk of AD in women.

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