Bone defects with tissue loss there are a challenge for reconstructive surgery in both medical and dental care. Autogenous bone graft has been frequently used in the treatment of bone defects. However, these grafts require additional surgery, a longer surgical time and increases postoperative morbidity. In some situations such as the repair of cranial-facial defects, where the mechanical strength of the graft is not necessary, periosteal graft can be used as an alternative to bone graft. The advantage of using periosteal graft is that the morbidity on the donor site is minimal compared with the autogenous bone graft. The low intensity ultrasonic therapy is a non-invasive method that stimulates the osteogenesis and reduces the consolidation time of fractures. Mechanical waves of ultrasound transmitted through the body can stimulate the osteoblastc activity. Considering the advantages of the use of periosteal grafts in the repair of bone defects and assuming that the low intensity ultrasonic irradiation is a safe and noninvasive method to stimulate osteoblastc activity, our working hypothesis is that the osteogenic cells of the periosteum of the donor site could be stimulated by ultrasonic irradiation prior to the grafting procedure. This could to increase the osteogenic potential of periosteal graft without any morbidity. Therefore, the objective of this study is to assess by histological methods, the effects of the pulsed ultrasonic irradiation on the periosteum of the tibia of rats.
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