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Author(s):
Juliana Tironi Machado
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Medicina
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Marisa Passarelli; Eder Carlos Rocha Quintao; Antonio Carlos Seguro
Advisor: Marisa Passarelli
Abstract

Advanced glycation, carbamylation and oxidative stress c contribute to atherosclerosis in chronic kidney disease (CKD) as nontraditional risk factors. They impair lipid metabolism and promote a long last injury during the development of CKD. Serum albumin isolated from CKD-animals reduces cholesterol efflux mediated by apoa A-I and HDl subfractions, impairing the cholesterol flux from arterial wall macrophage to the the liver by the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT).Objective: In the present study it was analyzed the influence of N-acetylcysteine treatment in CKD-rats in plasma concentration of lipid peroxides and advanced glycation end products and the effect of serum albumin in macrophage cholesterol efflux and endoplasmic reticulum stress development. Methods: Two months male Wistar weighting 200-250g were submitted to a 5/6 nephrectomized maintained for 60 days (CKD group) treated or not with N-acetylcysteine in water (600 mg/L), after the seventh day of CKD induction (CKD+NAC group). Sham animals were false-operated (SHAM group) and a subgroup was treated with NAC (SHAM+NAC group). In the basal and final periods it was determined plasma concentration of glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), urea, creatinine and 24h-urinary protein excretion (UPE). Total AGE, pentosidine, thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) levels and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were measured at the final period only. Serum albumin was isolated by fast protein liquid chromatography and purified by alcoholic extraction. J774 macrophage were incubated for 18 h with albumin isolated from the experimental groups in order to determine the content of HDL receptors and markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress (Grp78, Grp94 and protein dissulfide isomerase, PDI) by immunioblot and cholesterol efflux mediated by apo A-I and HDL2. For this, cells were previously overloaded with acetylated LDL and 14C-cholesterol. Macrophage were also incubated with different concentrations of NAC alone in order to measure HDL-receptors and cholesterole efflux. Results: In the end of the protocol, body weight was 10% lower in CKD group in comparison to SHAM group (p=0.006). This change was preserved by treatment with NAC. SBP (mmHg) was higher in CKD group (130±3) in comparison to CKD+NAC (109±3; p=0.0004). Urea, creatinine, TC, TG (mg/dL), UPE (mg/24 h), total AGE, pentosidine (arbitrary units of fluorescence) and TBARS (nmol/mL) were higher in CKD group in comparison to SHAM (122±8 vs. 41 ± 0.9; 0.9 ± 0.07 vs. 0.4 ± 0.03; 151 ± 6 vs. 76±2.7; 83 ± 4 vs. 51.5 ± 3; 46 ± 2.5 vs. 14 ± 0.9; 32620 ± 673 vs. 21750 ± 960; 16700 ± 1370 vs. 5314 ± 129; 6.6 ± 0.5 vs. 2 ± 0.2, respectively) (p < 0.0001) and in CKD+NAC in comparison to C+NAC (91.4±5 vs. 40±0.9 ; 0.6±0.02 vs. 0.3 ± 0.02; 126±7.5 vs. 76 ± 2.6; 73±6 vs. 68±4; 51 ± 3.5 vs. 18.4±1.5; 24720 ± 1114 vs. 20040±700; 10080±748 vs. 5050 ± 267; 4.5±0.5 vs. 1.8±0.2, respectively) (p < 0.0001). In CKD+NAC group, SBP, TC, urea, creatinine, total AGE, pentosidine and TBARS were, respectively, 17 % (p=0.0004), 17 % (p=0.02), 25 % (p=0.02), 33 % (p=0.06), 24 % (p<0.0001), 40 % (p=0.0008), 28 % (p=0.009) lower than CKD group. Glycemia was higher in SHAM+NAC (107+-4.6) and CKD+NAC (107+-2.6) in comparison to SHAM (96+-1.8) and CKD group (98+-1.6), respectively. Macrophages treat with CKD-albumin presented higher content of PDI (5 times; p=0.02 e 7 times p=0.02) and Grp94 (66 %; p=0.02 e 20 %; p=0.02) when compared to SHAM-albumin and CKD+NAC-albumin- treated cells, respectively. ABCA-1 protein content was 87 % and 70 % (p < 0.01) lower in macrophages treated with SHAM+NAC-albumin and CKD-albumin, respectively compared with SHAM-albumin. ABCG-1 protein level was respectively 4 and 7.5 times higher in macrophages treated with SHAM+NAC-albumin and CKD+NAC-albumin in comparison to their respective controls without treatment. The cholesterol efflux mediated by apo A-I was 59 % and 70 % (p < 0.0001) lower in macrophages treated with SHAM+NAC-albumin and CKD-albumin, respectively, when compared to SHAM-albumin. The HDL2-mediated cholesterol efflux was 52 % higher in macrophages treated with SHAM+NAC-albumin compared to macrophages treated with SHAM-albumin. No difference was observed in the ABCA-1 protein level in macrophages treated with crescent concentrations of NAC alone for 8 h. Nonetheless, after 18 h, ABCA-1 was 50 %, 69 % and 72 % reduced in macrophages treated, respectively, with 10 mM, 20 mM and 30 mM NAC in comparison to control cells. ABCG-1 content in macrophages treated with NAC for 8 h and 18 h was not changed. Conclusion: NAC reduces plasma lipid peroxidation and AGE in CKD animals and prevents the endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by CKD-albumin in macrophages. Despite diminishing ABCA-1 and apo A-I-mediated cholesterol efflux, NAC increases ABCG-1. Then, NAC may contribute to attenuate the deleterious effects of the in vivo modified albumin on lipid accumulation in macrophages helping to prevent atherosclerosis in CKD (AU)

FAPESP's process: 11/03773-5 - Influence of serum albumin isolated from experimental model of chronic kidney disease on the reverse cholesterol transport in macrophages
Grantee:Juliana Tironi Machado
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Master