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Author(s):
Ana Paula de Meireles Reis Pelosi
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Instituto de Geociências
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Antonio Romalino Santos Fragoso Cesar; Vicente José Fúlfaro; Ricardo da Cunha Lopes; Setembrino Petri; Claudio Riccomini
Advisor: Antonio Romalino Santos Fragoso Cesar
Abstract

The Maricá group contains the first unmetamorphosed sedimentary successions of Rio Grande do Sul state. These deposits are exposed in western margins of Camaquã basin, where a basal contact with Rio Vacacaí terrane is characterized by faults, in some areas by a lithological unconformity. According to geochronological data of basements units and intrusive plutonic and sub-volcanic bodies, the Maricá group was developed between 620 and 600Ma. The aim of this work is to propose a paleogeographical evolution of Maricá group. Five methods of paleogeographical reconstruction were done: (i) geological mapping (1:100.000 scale), (ii) description of lithofacies assemblies, (iii) interpretation of deposicional systems and sequences, (iv) provenance and paleocurrents analyses and (v) geochronological analyses of cobble and pebble to discover the ages of source areas. The Maricá group was divided in three lithostratigraphic units: (i) Passo da Promessa formation, (ii) São Rafael formation and (iii) Arroio América formation. These units were mapped in all exposed areas of Maricá group and were grouped into two sequences (Lower Maricá Sequence and Upper Maricá Sequence). The basal unit (Passo da Promessa formation) comprises sandstones and conglomeratic sandstones with trough cross-stratifications; massive conglomerates and conglomerates with cross-stratifications are in minor proportion. These deposits were interpreted as a large braided fluvial plain, characterized by high textural maturity. Paleocurrents show that the transport was towards the North during the evolution of this unit. Lithofacies of intermediate unit (São Rafael formation) were grouped into three facies associations that were developed in a marine epicontinental platform. Passo do Salsinho Facies Association consists of monotonous tabular sandstones and rhythmites formed by turbidite currents in a offshore environment. Lavras do Sul Facies Association is composed of rhythmites and sandstones with lenticular bedding, wavy bedding, hummocky cross-stratification and others structures that indicate deposition in shoreface environments. Três Estradas Facies Association is restrict, cropping out only in Passo do Salsinho and Três Estradas regions. This association comprises sandstones, siltstones and mudstones, which yours deposits are characterized by several structures (lenticular bedding, wavy bedding, herring-bone cross-stratifications etc.) showing deposition in foreshore environments. Arroio America formation includes sandstones and conglomeratic sandstones with trough cross-stratifications, in minor proportion conglomerates and rhythmites, which are grouped into Arroio América Facies Association. This facies association indicates deposition in a braided fluvial plain system. Paleocurrents show that the transport was towards the Northwest and Northeast during the evolution of this unit. These deposits are characterized by high textural maturity, which yours fragments are rounded, well rounded and well sorted. Paleocurrents and provenance analyses show that source areas of Maricá group were composed of granites rocks (alkalis feldspar granite and granite with garnet) and tonalities; quartzite, quartz vein and volcanic rocks are in minor proportion. According to geochronological analyses of cobble samples, these source areas were developed in Archean and Paleoproterozoic ages. The provenance and paleocurrents analyses suggest that Rio de La Plata Craton and some Archean and Paleoproterozoic basement units of Dom Feliciano Belt in Uruguay were the most important source area and the Rio Vacacaí terrane was the basement unit of the Camaquã basin during the Maricá group evolution. The facies associations, the depositional systems successions, the high textural maturity and the cratonic source areas shows that Maricá group was developed in a wide steady basin, probably in an intracratonic environment. There are no evidences of tectonics events during the Maricá group deposition. These elements prove that the Camaquã basin was not related to the Brasiliano Orogeny. (AU)