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L-leucine-rich diet modulates muscle cell signalling pathway of protein metabolism in Walker 256 tumour-bearing rats

Author(s):
Bread Leandro Gomes da Cruz
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Institution: Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Instituto de Biologia
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Miguel Arcanjo Areas; Daniel Martins de Souza; Estela Maria Gonçalves; Carlos Alberto da Silva
Advisor: Maria Cristina Cintra Gomes Marcondes
Abstract

Cancer is one of the most important causes of death worldwide and the process of cachexia caused by some types of tumour is largely responsible for this. Cancer-cachexia state established in these patients is characterized, among other processes, by involuntary loss of weight due to constant spoliation of lean body mass. Many studies aim to focus in maintenance of lean body mass in cachectic tumour-bearing host, contributing to the reduction of deaths and improving the quality of life of cancer patients. In recent years, leucine has been shown to be effective in maintaining lean body mass by stimulating muscle protein synthesis and inhibiting the proteolysis. Therefore, there are increased needs in understanding how the presence of leucine stimulates protein synthesis and acts protectively in the cachectic state. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of leucine-rich diet in a time-course model on signalling protein synthesis and degradation involving mTOR complex in muscles of Walker 256 carcinoma-bearing rats. Animals were divided into experimental groups based on the tumour inoculation and/or fed a nutritional supplementation diet rich in leucine. Animals were sacrificed at three different times depending on the tumour development (7, 14 and 21 days after tumour implantation), and the gastrocnemius muscles were analysed as mTOR pathway and ubiquitin-proteasome via. The results showed that the tumour development has reduced the activation of RAG-A, associated with a decrease of IRS-1, increased PKB / Akt and Erk / MAP4K3 at day 21 and maintaining p70S6K1, there has also been increasing levels of STAT-3 and STAT-6 in tumour-bearing rats. Meanwhile, the presence of leucine in the diet modulated the key steps of the mTOR pathway for triggering the increased RAG-A and mTOR activation along with the maintenance of levels of JNK, STAT-3 and STAT-6 in the muscle during tumour development in cachectic host. The gastrocnemius muscle signalling of protein degradation indicated by the ubiquitin-proteasome subunits (11S, 19S and 20S) and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were marked increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-6 and IFNγ) and a progressive increase in the proteasome subunits (19S and 20S) associated with simultaneously decreased muscle protein. The supplementation with leucine attenuated these parameters, suggesting the beneficial effect of the use of leucine and clarifies the metabolic pathways used by this amino acid, contributing to better understanding of the in vivo action of this amino acid on cachexia. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 11/08276-0 - Modultation of L-leucine on cell signaling and metabolic pathways of muscle protein metabolism in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats.
Grantee:Bread Leandro Gomes da Cruz
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate