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Polyunsaturated fatty acids receptors, GPR40 e GPR120, are expressed in the hypothalamus and control energy homeostasis and inflammation

Author(s):
Nathalia Romanelli Vicente Dragano
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Institution: Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Faculdade de Ciências Médicas
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Marcelo Alves da Silva Mori; Marcio Alberto Torsoni; Gabriel Forato Anhê; William Tadeu Lara Festuccia
Advisor: Licio Augusto Velloso
Abstract

The recent characterization of the atypical anti-inflammatory activity exerted by the polyunsaturated fatty acid receptor GPR120 has raised the interest on this class of receptors as potential targets for the treatment of obesity and related disorders. Most studies performed to date have explored the potential metabolic benefits of a systemic activation of GPR120 and GPR40; however, it is currently known that the hypothalamus is affected during the early stages of obesity and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease and its comorbidities. Here, we evaluate the expression and potential therapeutic actions of hypothalamic GPR120 and GPR40 in experimental diet-induced obesity. We show that both receptors are expressed in the hypothalamus; GPR120 is mostly present in microglia, whereas GRP40 is preferentially expressed in NPY neurons. Upon intracerebroventricular treatment, GW9508, a non-specific agonist of both receptors, reduced energy efficiency and the expression of inflammatory genes in the hypothalamus. Reducing GPR120 hypothalamic expression using a lentivirus approach resulted in the loss of the anti-inflammatory effect of GW9508 and increased energy efficiency. The intracerebroventricular treatment with GPR120 and GPR40 specific agonists, TUG1197 and TUG905, respectively, resulted in milder effects than those produced by GW9508. TUG1197 acted predominantly controlling inflammation reducing the expression of TNF? and IL1? while increasing IL10 and IL6. Conversely, TUG905 acted reducing body mass and increasing the expression of POMC. We conclude that GPR120 and GPR40 act in concert in the hypothalamus to reduce energy efficiency and regulate the inflammation associated with obesity. The combined activation of both receptors in the hypothalamus results in better metabolic outcomes than the isolated activation of either alone. (AU)