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Cladistic analysis of the species groups of Zethus (Zethoides) Fox, 1899 (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae)

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Author(s):
Rogério Botion Lopes
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: Ribeirão Preto.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto (PCARP/BC)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Fernando Barbosa Noll; Eduardo Andrade Botelho de Almeida; Marcel Gustavo Hermes
Advisor: Fernando Barbosa Noll
Abstract

Vespidae has approximately 5000 species, of which 3500 are eumenines. Zethus is the largest genus in Eumeninae, with over 250 species. Currently, it is divided in four subgenera: Z. (Zethus), Z. (Zethusculus), Z. (Zethoides) and Z. (Madecazethus). Z. (Zethoides), with 42 species, stands out for building exposed nests and presenting subsocial behavior. These species are further divided in eight groups, each considered a phylogenetic unit that were created without any phylogenetic analysis. Eighteen species of Z. (Zethoides) corresponding to different groups were examined, altogether with terminals fromdistict lineages of Zethus, Zethini and Eumenine, in order to elaborate a cladistics analysis to verify the proposed divisions. All species groups were monophyletic except for the Z. biglumis group, that is paraphyletic in relation to the Z. clypearis group. Z. (Zethoides), although monophyletic as Z. (Madecazethus), is placed within Zethus s. s. Z. (Zethusculus) was also retrieved paraphyletic. Thus, the Z. clypearis group is dismantled, and its integrates are incorporated in the Z. biglumis group. Also, the following synonymies will be proposed: Ctenochilus (=Zethus); Z. (Madecazethus) (=Z. (Zethus)); Z. (Zethoides) (=Z. (Zethus)). (AU)

FAPESP's process: 12/16586-1 - Phylogeny of the Zethus (Zethoides) Fox, 1899 species groups (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae)
Grantee:Rogério Botion Lopes
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Master