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Synthesis of biodiesel from castor oil using subcritical ethanol

Author(s):
Julie Katerine Rodríguez Guerrero
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Institution: Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP). Faculdade de Engenharia Química
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Paula Sbaite Duarte dos Santos; Julian Martinez
Advisor: Rubens Maciel Filho
Abstract

In this work, three processes of synthesis of ethyl esters were studied: non-catalytic, using homogeneous catalyst (sodium hydroxide) and using heterogeneous catalyst (acid lanthanum diphosphate), from castor oil and sub and supercritical ethanol. The influence of the operating variables on the conversion of both non-catalytic and using homogeneous catalyst processes was studied by means of a design of experiment associated to the surface response methodology, using temperature, reaction time, ethanol:oil molar ratio and, whenever used, catalyst concentration as independent variables. In the process with heterogeneous catalyst, several analysis were performed under the optimum conditions (temperature and molar ratio) calculated from experimental design of the other two processes. It was verified that, using 0,1% wt of NaOH (amount lower than the required to neutralize the oil), it was possible to obtain high conversions and that using acid lanthanum diphosphate presents a significant catalytic activity on the biodiesel production, even using oils with high acidity index. The maximum conversion reached was 98,94 % in the process with homogeneous catalyst, 92,94 % with heterogeneous catalyst and 56,17 % in the non-catalytic process. Additionally, the reaction kinetics and activation energies were obtained for the three processes, observing that the reaction rate constants are pseudo first order. The activation energies are within the range reported on literature. Besides, it was verified that the option of working with NaOH is the most interesting in operational terms since the catalyst cost is low, the amount of catalyst used is small and, in addition, it is not necessary a pretreatment stage of the castor oil used as raw material. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 08/07722-3 - Synthesis of biodiesel from castor oil using subcritical ethanol
Grantee:Julie Katerine Rodriguez Guerrero
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Master