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Relationship between serum concentrations of vitamin D, VDR gene polymorphisms and metabolic syndrome in adults individuals

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Author(s):
Natielen Jacques Schuch
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Saúde Pública (FSP/CIR)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Ligia Araujo Martini; Patricia de Souza Genaro; Thomas Prates Ong; Marcelo de Medeiros Pinheiro; Sandra Roberta Gouvea Ferreira Vivolo
Advisor: Ligia Araujo Martini
Abstract

Introduction - The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in many tissues and when it is in its activated form modulates the expression of several genes. These include changes in circulating levels of 1,25(OH)2D3, variations in bone mineral density, sensitivity and secretion of insulin in response to glucose, susceptibility to type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Currently, evidences have suggested the involvement of vitamin D with the metabolic syndrome. Objective - To investigate the serum concentrations of vitamin D and its relationship with metabolic syndrome (MS) and to evaluate the potential association between these factors with the presence of polymorphisms in vitamin D receptor gene in individuals adults. Methods - This is a cross-sectional study, which evaluated 243 adults and elderly. We collected blood samples for measurements of 25(OH)D3, iPTH, biochemical tests related to MS, and anthropometric evaluation (weight, height, BMI) were also assessed. MS was classified using the criteria proposed by the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III). Insulin resistance and cell secretion were estimated by calculating HOMA IR and HOMA , respectively. The 25(OH)D3 was measured by HPLC and insufficiency was determined by the Roc curve cut-off (52.6 nmol/L). Intact PTH and serum calcium were also evaluated. The BsmI and FokI polymorphisms were detected by enzymatic digestion with specific enzymes and confirmed by allele specific PCR (ASPCR) or amplification of refractory mutation (ARM) in individuals with or without MS (52 per cent vs. 48 per cent , respectively). Statistical analyses include construction of Roc curves, Student T test, correlation tests, Hardy-Weinberg test, ANOVA, binary logistic regression (odds ratio), and TwoStep Cluster. These analyses were conducted with SPSS for Windows, version 18 and p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results - The mean age of participants was 51(15) years, mean BMI was 29(6) kg/m2, and 48 per cent of individuals presented MS. As expected, subjects with MS showed higher values of age (57(12) years), BMI was 32(6) kg/m2, waist circumference was 103(13) cm, systolic blood pressure was 138(17) mmHg, diastolic was 83(10) mmHg, fasting glucose was 98(12) mg/dl, triglycerides was 165(76) mg/dl, HOMA-IR was 2.2(1.7), HOMA was 116(95), and lower levels of HDL cholesterol was observed (41 mg/dl(11)). With respect to serum 25(OH)D3 proposed by ROC curve analysis, 43 per cent of individuals with MS and 57 per cent of individuals without MS presented insufficiency of this vitamin. Correlations between 25(OH)D3, iPTH (r = -0,153, p = 0.005), and waist circumference (r = -0,106, p = 0.05) were observed in all participants. Considering the VDR gene polymorphisms, in patients with MetSyn, there is no association among BsmI polymorphism and components of MetSyn, HOMA IR and , 25(OH)D3, and PTH. However, subjects without MetSyn, but with homozygosis for BsmI polymorphism (recessive bb genotype), presented lower levels of 25(OH)D3 than those with normal BB genotype. In addition, individuals with MetSyn and heterozygosis for FokI polymorphism (Ff genotype) have higher concentrations of PTH and HOMA than those with normal FF genotype. In this same group, subjects with the recessive ff genotype have higher insulin resistance than those with Ff genotype. On the other hand, patients without MetSyn, but carrying the Ff genotype, have higher concentration of triglycerides and lower levels of HDL than those with FF genotype. Interestingly, the presence of one allele f in the (Ff or ff) genotype is apparently enough to increase triglycerides levels and insulin resistance, when compared to the normal FF genotype. Conclusion - The results show that FokI polymorphism in the VDR gene is associated to insulin resistance and higher concentrations of PTH in patients with MetSyn. Moreover, BsmI polymorphism is related to a lower concentration of 25(OH)D3 in individuals without MetSyn. Therefore, the results indicated that VDR gene polymorphisms are associated to different phenotypes of MetSyn components (AU)