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Preferential topoclimatic conditions for parica (Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex. Ducke) Barneby) plantations and evidence of performance to optimize the silviculture in deforested areas in the Amazon

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Author(s):
Daiana Carolina Antunes Monteiro
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: Piracicaba.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Carlos Alberto Vettorazzi; Silvio Brienza Junior; Hilton Thadeu Zarate do Couto
Advisor: Carlos Alberto Vettorazzi; Lucieta Guerreiro Martorano
Abstract

Today\'s greatest challenge is to meet the growing demand for raw materials in a responsible way, maintaining the functionality of the natural systems for actual and future generations. In Amazon, historically the different uses of the land have damaged the standards of forest covering and diversity. The State of Para showed, from 2004 to 2012, the biggest deforestation rates in the region, accounting for 22% of the state, resulting in biodiversity losses and, consequently, in the increase of degraded landscapes. Therefore, the silviculture of native species presents a potentially mitigating activity, recovering modified areas, turning them productive, contributing to the conservation genetics, to the maintenance of environmental services and the creation of jobs and income. To achieve an efficient and effective production there are fundamental assumptions like the identification of high yield genetic material, of species compatible with the edaphoclimatic conditions, of the silvicutural and ecology aspects of the species. This paper aims to identify preferential topoclimatic conditions for the parica (Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex. Ducke) Barneby), a native species of the Amazon planted in large-scale in Brazil, for wood-laminating and derivatives. Georreference information of natural occurrence was used and the topoclimatic conditions prevailing in these occurrences were evaluated. To identify preferential rates multivariate techniques were applied considering the evidence obtained on the field. Using solutions of algebra maps on a Geographic Information System platform (SIG), integrations of topoclimatic variables were realized selecting preferred and limiting ranges to the species. As a result, we obtained the zoning showing three zones, of low, medium and high potential for the parica, in the State of Para. The subsequent analyses were realized using field data of parica plantation in the municipality of Dom Eliseu, in southeastern Para. Supervised digital classifications were realized using the orbital images LANDSAT/TM-5 of the 2010 to identify the patterns of land use and land cover in the municipality. The parica plantations were spatialized on zoning map to potential of municipality which made possible the analysis of the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) answers extracted from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) remote sensor, in different periods of water deficit (AWC 300mm), applying a test of average and a profile analysis, using univariate and multivariate techniques. A tendency has been found in the parica vigor with a decrease from 0.85 to 0.68, in the months of greater water deficit, as well as differences between plantings in areas of high potential and those of medium potential. In addition, differences in dendrometric increase, in the transition of dry to rainy season, have been evaluated in a significance level of 5%. From this result, four silvicultural scenarios were established considering the driving forces in the parica\'s production chain. The high potential topoclimatic areas express higher spectral answer, indicating a higher water supply in the soil for the parica. Scenarios of forest plantation in high potential zones are evidences of economic, social and environmental gains maximization. With those results, we hope to subsidize strategies of risk reduction in plantings of native species to consolidate an economy of low carbon emission in the Amazon, in conformity with the current Forest Code. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 11/15205-1 - Preferential topoclimatic conditions to parica(Schizolobium parahybavar. amazonicum(Huber ex. Ducke) Barneby plantations and evidence of performance to optimize the forestry in deforested areas in the Amazon
Grantee:Daiana Carolina Monteiro Tourne
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Master