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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

Natural history and systematic position of Rhetus belphegor (n. comb.) (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae), an endangered butterfly with narrow distribution in Southeast Brazil

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Kaminski, Lucas A. [1] ; Soares, Gloria R. [2] ; Seraphim, Noemy ; Wahlberg, Niklas [3] ; Marini-Filho, Onildo J. [4] ; Freitas, Andre V. L.
Total Authors: 6
[1] CSIC UPF, Inst Biol Evolutiva, Barcelona - Spain
[2] Univ Fed Vicosa, Inst Biol, PPG Ecol, Vicosa, MG - Brazil
[3] Univ Turku, Dept Biol, SF-20500 Turku - Finland
[4] Ctr Nacl Pesquisa & Conservacao Biodiversidade Ce, Inst Chico Mendes Conservacao Biodiversidade, Brasilia, DF - Brazil
Total Affiliations: 4
Document type: Journal article
Source: Journal of Insect Conservation; v. 19, n. 6, p. 1141-1151, DEC 2015.
Web of Science Citations: 6

The riodinid Rhetus belphegor (Westwood) (n. comb., previously in the genus Nirodia) is a critically endangered butterfly confined to the ``campos rupestres{''}; a high-altitude rocky outcrop vegetation from southeast Brazil. The aim of this study is to unveil its biology and evaluate its systematic position. Based on museum data and public contribution of data (in the context of citizen science), R. belphegor is restricted to the ``Espinha double dagger o Mountain Chain{''}, and occurs exclusively above 1000 m. Adults were found resting upside down on rock walls. Females searched for host plants during the hottest hours of the day, depositing 1-2 eggs on leaves of the herbaceous subshrub Microstachys serrulata (Euphorbiaceae). The non-myrmecophilous larvae developed through six instars and the developmental time from egg to adult was similar to 50 days. Larvae are covered with abundant setae. Morphology of immature stages and molecular phylogenetic analysis showed that Nirodia is part of Rhetus, justifying the generic change. Our data supports that Nirodia is the only species in its clade associated with high mountains, in contrast to its lowland congeners. The description of the immature biology and clarification on its systematic position are essential steps for the establishment of better and more effective conservation efforts for this magnificent Brazilian butterfly. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 11/50225-3 - Natural history, phylogeny and conservation of Neotropical Lepidoptera
Grantee:André Victor Lucci Freitas
Support type: BIOTA-FAPESP Program - Regular Research Grants
FAPESP's process: 13/50297-0 - Dimensions US-BIOTA São Paulo: a multidisciplinary framework for biodiversity prediction in the Brazilian Atlantic forest hotspot
Grantee:Cristina Yumi Miyaki
Support type: BIOTA-FAPESP Program - Thematic Grants