Meschiari, Cesar A.
Pinheiro, Lucas C.
Guimaraes, Danielle A.
Gerlach, Raquel F.
Tanus-Santos, Jose E.
Total Authors: 5
 Univ Sao Paulo, Ribeiro Preto Med Sch, Dept Pharmacol, Av Bandeirantes 3900, BR-14049900 Ribeirao Preto, SP - Brazil
 Univ Sao Paulo, Dent Sch Ribeirao Preto, Dept Morphol & Physiol, BR-14049900 Ribeirao Preto, SP - Brazil
Total Affiliations: 2
NAUNYN-SCHMIEDEBERGS ARCHIVES OF PHARMACOLOGY;
Web of Science Citations:
Imbalanced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity promotes cardiovascular alterations that are attenuated by statins. These drugs exert pleiotropic effects independent of cholesterol concentrations, including upregulation of nitric oxide (NO) formation and MMP downregulation. However, statins also increase tissue concentrations of nitrites, which activate new signaling pathways independent of NO. We examined whether atorvastatin attenuates MMP-9 production by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) by mechanisms possibly involving increased nitrite, and whether this effect results of NO formation. We also examined whether such an effect is improved by sildenafil, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase-5 which potentiates NO-induced increases in cyclic GMP. MMP activity and nitrite concentrations were measured by gelatin zymography and ozone-based reductive chemiluminescence, respectively, in the conditioned medium of HUVECs incubated for 24 h with these drugs. Phospho-NF kappa B p65 concentrations were measured in cell lysate to assess NF kappa B activation. Atorvastatin attenuated PMA-induced MMP-9 gelatinolytic activity by mechanisms not involving NO, although it increased nitrite concentrations, whereas sildenafil had no effects. Combining both drugs showed no improved responses compared to atorvastatin alone. While sodium nitrite attenuated MMP-9 production by HUVECs, adding hemoglobin (NO scavenger) did not affect the responses to nitrite. Neither atorvastatin nor nitrite inhibited PMA-induced increases in phospho-NF kappa B p65 concentrations. These findings show that sodium nitrite attenuates MMP-9 production by endothelial cells and may explain similar effects exerted by atorvastatin. With both drugs, the inhibitory effects on MMP-9 production are not dependent on NO formation or on inhibition of NF kappa B activation. Our findings may help to elucidate important new nitrite-mediated mechanisms by which statins affect imbalanced MMP activity in a variety of cardiovascular disease. (AU)