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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

Carotenoid esters in foods - A review and practical directions on analysis and occurrence

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Author(s):
Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti ; Rodrigues, Daniele B. ; Petry, Fabiane C. ; Barros Mariutti, Lilian Regina
Total Authors: 4
Document type: Review article
Source: Food Research International; v. 99, n. 2, SI, p. 830-850, SEP 2017.
Web of Science Citations: 27
Abstract

Carotenoids are naturally found in both free form and esterified with fatty acids in most fruits and some vegetables; however, up to now the great majority of studies presents data on carotenoid composition only after saponification. The reasons for this approach are that a single xanthophyll can be esterified with several different fatty acids, generating a great number of different compounds with similar chemical and structural characteristics, thus, increasing the complexity of analysis compared to the respective saponified extract. This means that since UV/Vis spectrum does not change due to esterification, differentiation between free and acylated xanthophylls is dependent at least on elution order and mass spectrometry (MS) features. The presence of interfering compounds, especially triacyiglycerides (TAGs), in the non-saponified extract of carotenoids can also impair carotenoid ester analyses by MS due to high background noise and ionization suppression since TAGs can be present in much higher concentrations than the carotenoid esters. This leads to the need of development of new and effective clean-up procedures to remove the potential interferents. In addition, only few standards of xanthophyll esters are commercially available, making identification and quantification of such compounds even more difficult. Xanthophyll esterification may also alter some properties of these compounds, including solubility, thermostability and bioavailability. Considering that commonly consumed foods are dietary sources of xanthophyll esters and that it is the actual form of ingestion of such compounds, an increasing interest on the native carotenoid composition of foods is observed nowadays. This review presents a compilation of the current available information about xanthophyll ester analyses and occurrence and a practical guide for extraction, pre chromatographic procedures, separation and identification by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 13/09804-5 - Carotenoids and carotenoid esters in different citrus cultivars: composition, bioacessibility and changes during ripeness
Grantee:Fabiane Cristina Petry
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate
FAPESP's process: 13/07914-8 - FoRC - Food Research Center
Grantee:Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo Franco
Support type: Research Grants - Research, Innovation and Dissemination Centers - RIDC
FAPESP's process: 13/23218-1 - In vitro bioaccessibility of Murici carotenoids and their esters and influence of phenolic compounds on carotenoid bioaccessibility in mimic food system
Grantee:Daniele Bobrowski Rodrigues
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate