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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

ATLASGAL-selected massive clumps in the inner Galaxy VII. Characterisation of mid-J CO emission

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Navarete, F. [1, 2] ; Leurini, S. [1, 3] ; Giannetti, A. [1, 4, 5] ; Wyrowski, F. [1] ; Urquhart, J. S. [1, 6] ; Koenig, C. [1] ; Csengeri, T. [1] ; Guesten, R. [1] ; Damineli, A. [2] ; Menten, K. M. [1]
Total Authors: 10
[1] Max Planck Inst Radioastron, Hugel 69, D-53121 Bonn - Germany
[2] Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Dept Astron, Rua Matao 1226, BR-05508090 Sao Paulo, SP - Brazil
[3] Osservatorio Astron Cagliari, INAF, Via Sci 5, I-09047 Selargius, CA - Italy
[4] Ist Radioastron, INAF, Via P Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna - Italy
[5] Italian ALMA Reg Ctr, Via P Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna - Italy
[6] Univ Kent, Ctr Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Canterbury CT2 7NH, Kent - England
Total Affiliations: 6
Document type: Journal article
Source: Astronomy & Astrophysics; v. 622, FEB 8 2019.
Web of Science Citations: 0

Context. High-mass stars are formed within massive molecular clumps, where a large number of stars form close together. The evolution of the clumps with different masses and luminosities is mainly regulated by their high-mass stellar content and the formation of such objects is still not well understood. Aims. In this work, we characterise the mid-J CO emission in a statistical sample of 99 clumps (TOP100) selected from the ATLASGAL survey that are representative of the Galactic proto-cluster population. Methods. High-spatial resolution APEX-CHAMP(+) maps of the CO (6-5) and CO (7-6) transitions were obtained and combined with additional single-pointing APEX-FLASH(+) spectra of the CO (4-3) line. The data were convolved to a common angular resolution of 13 `'.4. We analysed the line profiles by fitting the spectra with up to three Gaussian components, classified as narrow or broad, and computed CO line luminosities for each transition. Additionally, we defined a distance-limited sample of 72 sources within 5 kpc to check the robustness of our analysis against beam dilution effects. We have studied the correlations of the line luminosities and profiles for the three CO transitions with the clump properties and investigate if and how they change as a function of the evolution. Results. All sources were detected above 3-sigma in all three CO transitions and most of the sources exhibit broad CO emission likely associated with molecular outflows. We find that the extension of the mid-J CO emission is correlated with the size of the dust emission traced by the Herschel-PACS 70 mu m maps. The CO line luminosity (L-CO) is correlated with the luminosity and mass of the clumps. However, it does not correlate with the luminosity-to-mass ratio. Conclusions. The dependency of the CO luminosity with the properties of the clumps is steeper for higher-J transitions. Our data seem to exclude that this trend is biased by self-absorption features in the CO emission, but rather suggest that different J transitions arise from different regions of the inner envelope. Moreover, high-mass clumps show similar trends in CO luminosity as lower mass clumps, but are systematically offset towards larger values, suggesting that higher column density and (or) temperature (of unresolved) CO emitters are found inside high-mass clumps. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 13/11680-2 - Diagnosys of the accretion process in MYSOs through molecular and ionic outflows
Grantee:Felipe Donizeti Teston Navarete
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate
FAPESP's process: 14/20522-4 - Massive molecular outflows
Grantee:Felipe Donizeti Teston Navarete
Support type: Scholarships abroad - Research Internship - Doctorate
FAPESP's process: 17/18191-8 - High-mass star formation: the mass of the central sources and the physics of the accretion process
Grantee:Felipe Donizeti Teston Navarete
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Post-Doctorate