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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

A Brazilian cohort of individuals with Phelan-McDermid syndrome: genotype-phenotype correlation and identification of an atypical case

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Samogy-Costa, Claudia Ismania [1] ; Varella-Branco, Elisa [1] ; Monfardini, Frederico [1] ; Ferraz, Helen [2] ; Fock, Rodrigo Ambrosio [3] ; Almeida Barbosa, Ricardo Henrique [3] ; Santos Pessoa, Andre Luiz [4, 5] ; Alvarez Perez, Ana Beatriz [3] ; Lourenco, Naila [1] ; Vibranovski, Maria [1] ; Krepischi, Ana [1] ; Rosenberg, Carla [1] ; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita [1]
Total Authors: 13
[1] Univ Sao Paulo, Ctr Pesquisa Genoma Humane & Celulas Tronco CEGH, Inst Biociencias, Sao Paulo - Brazil
[2] Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Programa Engn Quim, Rio De Janeiro - Brazil
[3] Univ Fed Sao Paulo, Ctr Genet Med, UNIFESP, Sao Paulo - Brazil
[4] Hosp Albert Sabin, Ambulatorio Neurogenet, Sao Paulo - Brazil
[5] Univ Estadual Ceara, Fac Med, UECE, Fortaleza, Ceara - Brazil
Total Affiliations: 5
Document type: Journal article
Web of Science Citations: 1

Background: Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by global developmental delay, intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and mild dysmorphisms associated with several comorbidities caused by SHANK3 loss-of-function mutations. Although SHANK3 haploinsufficiency has been associated with the major neurological symptoms of PMS, it cannot explain the clinical variability seen among individuals. Our goals were to characterize a Brazilian cohort of PMS individuals, explore the genotype-phenotype correlation underlying this syndrome, and describe an atypical individual with mild phenotype. Methodology: A total of 34 PMS individuals were clinically and genetically evaluated. Data were obtained by a questionnaire answered by parents, and dysmorphic features were assessed via photographic evaluation. We analyzed 22q13.3 deletions and other potentially pathogenic copy number variants (CNVs) and also performed genotype-phenotype correlation analysis to determine whether comorbidities, speech status, and ASD correlate to deletion size. Finally, a Brazilian cohort of 829 ASD individuals and another independent cohort of 2297 ID individuals was used to determine the frequency of PMS in these disorders. Results: Our data showed that 21% (6/29) of the PMS individuals presented an additional rare CNV, which may contribute to clinical variability in PMS. Increased pain tolerance (80%), hypotonia (85%), and sparse eyebrows (80%) were prominent clinical features. An atypical case diagnosed with PMS at 18 years old and IQ within the normal range is here described. Among Brazilian ASD or ID individuals referred to CNV analyses, the frequency of 22q13.3 deletion was 0.6% (5/829) and 0.61% (15/2297), respectively. Finally, renal abnormalities, lymphedema, and language impairment were found to be positively associated with deletion sizes, and the minimum deletion to cause these abnormalities is here suggested. Conclusions: This is the first work describing a cohort of Brazilian individuals with PMS. Our results confirm the impact of 22q13 deletions on ASD and several comorbidities, such as hypotonia. The estimation of a minimal deletion size for developing lymphedema and renal problem can assist prediction of prognosis in PMS individuals, particularly those diagnosed in early infancy. We also identified one atypical individual carrying SHANK3 deletion, suggesting that resilience to such mutations occurs. This case expands the clinical spectrum of variability in PMS and opens perspectives to identify protective mechanisms that can minimize the severity of this condition. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 16/17392-7 - Association study of rare variants in candidate genes for orofacial clefts in the brazilian population
Grantee:Ágatha Cristhina Oliveira Faria
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate
FAPESP's process: 13/08028-1 - CEGH-CEL - Human Genome and Stem Cell Research Center
Grantee:Mayana Zatz
Support type: Research Grants - Research, Innovation and Dissemination Centers - RIDC