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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

Variations in tetrodotoxin levels in populations of Taricha granulosa are expressed in the morphology of their cutaneous glands

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Author(s):
Mailho-Fontana, Pedro Luiz [1] ; Jared, Carlos [1] ; Antoniazzi, Marta Maria [1] ; Sciani, Juliana Mozer [2] ; Arvalho Pimenta, Daniel C. [1] ; Stokes, Amber N. [3] ; Grant, Taran [4] ; Brodie, III, Edmund D. ; Brodie, Jr., Edmund D. [5]
Total Authors: 9
Affiliation:
[1] Inst Butantan, Sao Paulo - Brazil
[2] Univ Sao Francisco, Braganca Paulista, SP - Brazil
[3] Califor State Univ, Bakersfield, CA - USA
[4] Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo - Brazil
[5] Utah State Univ, Logan, UT 84322 - USA
Total Affiliations: 5
Document type: Journal article
Source: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS; v. 9, DEC 6 2019.
Web of Science Citations: 0
Abstract

Tetrodotoxin (TTX), one of the most toxic substances in nature, is present in bacteria, invertebrates, fishes, and amphibians. Marine organisms seem to bioaccumulate TTX from their food or acquire it from symbiotic bacteria, but its origin in amphibians is unclear. Taricha granulosa can exhibit high TTX levels, presumably concentrated in skin poison glands, acting as an agent of selection upon predatory garter snakes (Thamnophis). This co-evolutionary arms race induces variation in T. granulosa TTX levels, from very high to undetectable. Using morphology and biochemistry, we investigated differences in toxin localization and quality between two populations at the extremes of toxicity. TTX concentration within poison glands is related to the volume of a single cell type in which TTX occurs exclusively in distinctive secretory granules, suggesting a relationship between granule structure and chemical composition. TTX was detected in mucous glands in both populations, contradicting the general understanding that these glands do not secrete defensive chemicals and expanding currently held interpretations of amphibian skin gland functionality. Skin secretions of the two populations differed in low-mass molecules and proteins. Our results demonstrate that interpopulation variation in TTX levels is related to poison gland morphology. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 15/00999-3 - Comparative morphology of integument and cutaneous glands of species of toads and salamanders from South America and North America
Grantee:Pedro Luiz Mailho Fontana
Support type: Scholarships abroad - Research Internship - Doctorate
FAPESP's process: 14/18703-0 - Ecology and evolution of amphibian chemical defense
Grantee:Taran Grant
Support type: Research Grants - Visiting Researcher Grant - International
FAPESP's process: 17/10488-1 - Parental care and skin feeding in the caecilian Siphonops annulatus: an integrative approach
Grantee:Pedro Luiz Mailho Fontana
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Post-Doctorate
FAPESP's process: 18/15425-0 - A multi-disciplinary approach to the study of amphibian diversification: phase 2
Grantee:Taran Grant
Support type: Research Grants - Young Investigators Grants - Phase 2
FAPESP's process: 18/03265-9 - Unraveling parental care in caecilians: nutritional and toxinological implications in Siphonops annulatus
Grantee:Carlos Alberto Gonçalves Silva Jared
Support type: Regular Research Grants
FAPESP's process: 12/10000-5 - A multi-disciplinary approach to the study of amphibian diversification
Grantee:Taran Grant
Support type: Research Grants - Young Investigators Grants
FAPESP's process: 14/15334-4 - The skin and the defense of toads (Bufonidae) against predators and desiccation
Grantee:Pedro Luiz Mailho Fontana
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate