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Correlation between phonetic-phonological characteristics of speech and orthographic characteristics of writing in children with speech sound disorders

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Jhulya Guilherme
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: Marília. 2020-05-14.
Institution: Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp). Faculdade de Filosofia e Ciências. Marília
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Advisor: Lourenço Chacon

The proposal of this research was to investigate a possible correlation between phonetic-phonological characteristics of speech and orthographic characteristics of writing in children with speech sound disorders (SSD) to clarify the knowledge about it, because in literature there are divergences related to this subject. Regarding these divergences we formulate two research questions: (1) is there a relation of dependence between speech production errors and orthographic errors?; and (2) if this relation does exist, what would be its nature? Thinking about possible answers to these questions we developed the hypotheses: (i) children with SSD may also present orthographic errors, and, moreover, speech production errors may present positive correlation with orthographic errors. However, as there are SSD subtypes, thus, it is expected that (ii) this difference shows up in the segmental characteristics of speech and in the orthographic characteristics of children due to the subtypes, especially regarding to phonological classes. We assume that children with SSD would also have problem in their phonological representation. Hence, as orthography in Brazilian Portuguese is based (also) in phonological principles, this aspect of writing in these children would also be affected. The first aim of this research was to compare and to correlate phonetic-phonological findings of speech and orthographic findings in children with SSD, and the second aim was to explore the nature of SSD and orthography disorders in relation to the phonological class and the SSD subtype. Ten children with a “phonological disorder” diagnosis were selected, being five of them with phonological delay and five with atypical consistent phonological disorder. The following procedures were performed: (1) assessment of phonetic-phonological aspects of speech production and (2) assessment of orthographic performance – both using the PERCEFAL tool – in consonantal classes: fricatives, plosives and sonorants. The speech aspects were analyzed by the data survey:(1) phonetic inventory; (2) phonological system; and (3) the calculation of Correct Consonant Percentual – Revised (PCC-R), which indicates the severity of SSD. The orthographic aspects were analyzed by: (1) characterization of orthographic errors; and (2) calculation of Correct Consonantal Graphemes Percentual (PGCC). Following this, a descriptive and inferential statistical data analysis was performed by using suitable tests to compare and to correlate the indexes related to speech production (PCC-R) and to orthographic performance (PGCC), i.e. the T-test for dependent samples and the Correlations test. As a result of the study, regarding to the first aim, speech had a higher hit percentual compared to orthography, and, in addition, there is no correlation between phoneticphonological characteristics of speech and orthographic characteristics of writing. Regarding to the second aim, the phonological replacements in speech and in orthography are the most frequent types of error. Moreover, the classes statistically different in relation to the phonological replacements were fricatives and liquids classes. Lastly, the SSD subtypes in this research had no statistical differences. We concluded that, although all children had orthographic errors, these changes were not correlated with the speech replacements, and, therefore, there was not a direct relationship between the evaluated abilities. (AU)