Mailho-Fontana, Pedro Luiz
Antoniazzi, Marta Maria
Pimenta, Daniel Carvalho
Sciani, Juliana Mozer
Brodie, Jr., Edmund D.
Total Authors: 7
 Butantan Inst, Struct Biol Lab, Sao Paulo - Brazil
 Butantan Inst, Biochem Lab, Sao Paulo - Brazil
 Sao Francisco Univ, Braganca Paulista, SP - Brazil
 Utah State Univ, Dept Biol, Logan, UT 84322 - USA
Total Affiliations: 4
JUL 24 2020.
Web of Science Citations:
Amphibians are known for their skin rich in glands containing toxins employed in passive chemical defense against predators, different from, for example, snakes that have active chemical defense, injecting their venom into the prey. Caecilians (Amphibia, Gymnophiona) are snake-shaped animals with fossorial habits, consid-ered one of the least known vertebrate groups. We show here that amphibian caecilians, including species from the basal groups, besides having cutaneous poisonous glands as other amphibians do, possess specific glands at the base of the teeth that produce enzymes commonly found in venoms. Our analysis of the origin of these glands shows that they originate from the same tissue that gives rise to teeth, similar to the venom glands in reptiles. We speculate that caecilians might have independently developed mechanisms of production and in-jection of toxins early in their evolutionary history. (AU)