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Contrast-agent-free state-of-the-art MRI on cerebral small vessel disease-part 1. ASL, IVIM, and CVR

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Paschoal, Andre Monteiro ; Secchinatto, Kaio Felippe ; da Silva, Pedro Henrique Rodrigues ; Zotin, Maria Clara Zanon ; dos Santos, Antonio Carlos ; Viswanathan, Anand ; Pontes-Neto, Octavio M. ; Leoni, Renata Ferranti
Total Authors: 8
Document type: Journal article
Source: NMR in Biomedicine; v. 35, n. 8, p. 11-pg., 2022-05-01.

Cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD), a common cause of stroke and dementia, is traditionally considered the small vessel equivalent of large artery occlusion or rupture that leads to cortical and subcortical brain damage. Microvessel endothelial dysfunction can also contribute to it. Brain imaging, including MRI, is useful to show the presence of lesions of several types, although the association between conventional MRI measures and clinical features of cSVD is not always concordant. We assessed the additional contribution of contrast-agent-free, state-of-the-art MRI techniques such as arterial spin labeling (ASL), diffusion tensor imaging, functional MRI, and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) applied to cSVD in the existing literature. We performed a review following the PICO Worksheet and Search Strategy, including original papers in English, published between 2000 and 2022. For each MRI method, we extracted information about their contributions, in addition to those established with traditional MRI methods and related information about the origins, pathology, markers, and clinical outcomes in cSVD. This paper presents the first part of the review, which includes 37 studies focusing on ASL, IVIM, and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) measures. In general, they have shown that, in addition to white matter hyperintensities, alterations in other neuroimaging parameters such as blood flow and CVR also indicate the presence of cSVD. Such quantitative parameters were also related to cSVD risk factors. Therefore, they are promising, noninvasive tools to explore questions that have not yet been clarified about this clinical condition. However, protocol standardization is essential to increase their clinical use. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 17/22212-0 - Structural and functional brain networks: from connections to cognition a study applied to Cerebral Small Vessel Disease
Grantee:Pedro Henrique Rodrigues da Silva
Support Opportunities: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate