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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

Are l-glutamate and ATP cotransmitters of the peripheral chemoreflex in the rat nucleus tractus solitarius ?

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Author(s):
Accorsi-Mendonca, Daniela [1] ; Bonagamba, Leni G. H. [1] ; Leao, Ricardo M. [1] ; Machado, Benedito H. [1]
Total Authors: 4
Affiliation:
[1] Univ Sao Paulo, Sch Med Ribeirao Preto, Dept Physiol, BR-14049900 Ribeirao Preto, SP - Brazil
Total Affiliations: 1
Document type: Journal article
Source: Experimental Physiology; v. 94, n. 1, p. 38-45, JAN 1 2009.
Web of Science Citations: 16
Abstract

Peripheral chemoreflex activation in awake rats or in the working heart-brainstem preparation (WHBP) produces sympathoexcitation, bradycardia and an increase in the frequency of phrenic nerve activity. Our focus is the neurotransmission of the sympathoexcitatory component of the chemoreflex within the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS), and recently we verified that the simultaneous antagonism of ionotropic glutamate and purinergic P(2) receptors in the NTS blocked the pressor response and increased thoracic sympathetic activity in awake rats and WHBP, respectively, in response to peripheral chemoreflex activation. These previous data suggested the involvement of ATP and L-glutamate in the NTS in the processing of the sympathoexcitatory component of the chemoreflex by unknown mechanisms. For a better understanding of these mechanisms, here we used a patch-clamp approach in brainstem slices to evaluate the characteristics of the synaptic transmission of NTS neurons sending projections to the ventral medulla, which include the premotor neurons involved in the generation of the sympathetic outflow. The NTS neurons sending projections to the ventral medulla were identified by previous microinjection of the membrane tracer dye, 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI), in the ventral medulla and the spontaneous (sEPSCs) and tractus solitarius (TS)-evoked excitatory postsynaptic current (TS-eEPSCs) were recorded using patch clamp. With this approach, we made the following observations on NTS neurons projecting to the ventral medulla: (i) the sEPSCs and TS-eEPSCs of DiI-labelled NTS neurons were completely abolished by 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3(1H,4H)-dione (DNQX), an antagonist of ionotropic non-NMDA glutamatergic receptors, showing that they are mediated by L-glutamate; (ii) application of ATP increased the frequency of appearance of spontaneous glutamatergic currents, reflecting an increased exocytosis of glutamatergic vesicles; and (iii) ATP decreased the peak of TS-evoked glutamatergic currents. We conclude that L-glutamate is the main neurotransmitter of spontaneous and TS-evoked synaptic activities in the NTS neurons projecting to the ventral medulla and that ATP has a dual modulatory role on this excitatory transmission, facilitating the spontaneous glutamatergic transmission and inhibiting the TS-evoked glutamatergic transmission. These data also suggest that ATP is not acting as a cotransmitter with L-glutamate, at least at the level of this subpopulation of NTS neurons studied. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 04/03285-7 - Central mechanisms involved in the sympathoexcitation in response to hypoxia
Grantee:Benedito Honorio Machado
Support type: Research Projects - Thematic Grants