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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

Loss of male secondary sexual structures in allopatry in the Neotropical butterfly genus Arcas (Lycaenidae: Iheclinae: Eumaeini)

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Robbins, Robert K. [1] ; Martins, Ananda Regina P. [2] ; Busby, Robert C. ; Duarte, Marcelo [3]
Total Authors: 4
[1] Smithsonian Inst, Dept Entomol, Washington, DC 20013 - USA
[2] Univ Fed Maranhao, Dept Biol, BR-65085580 Sao Luis, MA - Brazil
[3] Univ Sao Paulo, Museu Zool, BR-04263000 Sao Paulo - Brazil
Total Affiliations: 3
Document type: Journal article
Source: Insect Systematics and Evolution; v. 43, n. 1, p. 35-65, 2012.
Web of Science Citations: 8

Male secondary sexual characters in Lepidoptera may be present or absent in species that otherwise appear to be closely related, an observation that has led to differences of opinion over the taxonomic usefulness of these structures above the species level. An evolutionary issue raised by this debate is whether male secondary sexual characters (1) can be regained after being lost evolutionarily, (2) are not lost after being evolved, or (3) are `switched on and off' by genes that regulate development. A second evolutionary issue is the conditions under which male secondary sexual characters might be lost or gained evolutionarily. Because these structures are thought to promote species recognition, theory predicts evolutionary losses to be most likely in allopatry; evolutionary gains to be most likely during the process of secondarily establishing sympatry or during sympatric speciation. We updated the species-level taxonomy of the brilliant emerald winged Neotropical lycaenid butterfly genus Arcas and performed an analysis of phylogenetic relations among species to assess these evolutionary issues. We morphologically detail a scent pouch on the ventral hindwing of Areas and report that six species possess the pouch with androconia, one possesses the pouch without androconia, and the remaining two species have neither pouch nor androconia. In addition, eight Areas species have a morphologically species-specific male forewing scent pad, and one lacks a scent pad. This variation appears to be the result of three evolutionary losses and no gains of male secondary sexual organs. The four Areas species lacking a scent pouch or a scent pad are allopatric with their closest phylogenetic relatives while four of five with both of these structures are sympatric. Although Arcas is a small genus, these results are significantly more extreme than predicted by chance. For taxonomy, this study provides a rationale for the evolutionary loss of male secondary sexual structures and suggests that their absence, but itself, does not indicate a lack of relationship above the species level. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 03/13985-3 - Robert Kanner Robbins | Smithsonian Institution - United States
Grantee:Marcelo Duarte da Silva
Support type: Research Grants - Visiting Researcher Grant - International
FAPESP's process: 10/14682-8 - Biosystematics of lycaenidae (Insecta: Lepidoptera) from the remnants of Atlantic Rainforest, with emphasis for the Southeastern region of Brazil
Grantee:Marcelo Duarte da Silva
Support type: Regular Research Grants
FAPESP's process: 11/50225-3 - Natural history, phylogeny and conservation of Neotropical Lepidoptera
Grantee:André Victor Lucci Freitas
Support type: BIOTA-FAPESP Program - Regular Research Grants