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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

Immature stages of Parrhasius polibetes (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae): host plants, tending ants, natural enemies and morphology

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Author(s):
Kaminski, Lucas A. [1, 2] ; Rodrigues, Daniela [1] ; Freitas, Andre V. L. [1]
Total Authors: 3
Affiliation:
[1] Univ Estadual Campinas, Inst Biol, Dept Biol Anim, BR-13083970 Campinas, SP - Brazil
[2] Univ Estadual Campinas, Programa Posgrad Ecol, BR-13083970 Campinas, SP - Brazil
Total Affiliations: 2
Document type: Journal article
Source: Journal of Natural History; v. 46, n. 11-12, p. 645-667, 2012.
Web of Science Citations: 16
Abstract

Natural history and immature stage morphology of the facultative myrmecophilous butterfly Parrhasius polibetes (Stoll) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) are described and illustrated through both light and scanning electron microscopy. Larvae underwent four instars. At the third instar, the dorsal nectar organ became present and functional, and larvae were facultatively tended by several ant species, those also tending plants bearing extrafloral nectaries and honeydew-producing hemipterans. Larvae were florivorous and polyphagous at the species level, using at least 44 species of plants in 19 families. Most host plants (similar to 89%) had some type of ant-attractive features, such as extrafloral nectaries or ant-tended treehoppers. The host range of this butterfly species allows the use of floral resources throughout the year. Food sources that promote ant visitation, flower bud morphology and phenology appear to be related to the evolution and maintenance of polyphagy in this butterfly species. (AU)