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(Reference retrieved automatically from SciELO through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

External morphology of Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) during larval development

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Pinheiro, Daniela O. [1] ; Rossi, Guilherme D. [1] ; Consoli, Fernando L. [1]
Total Authors: 3
[1] USP ESALQ, Dept Entomol & Acarol, Lab Interacoes Insetos, BR-13418900 Piracicaba, SP - Brazil
Total Affiliations: 1
Document type: Journal article
Source: Zoologia; v. 27, n. 6, p. 986-992, 2010.
Web of Science Citations: 4

Cotesia flavipes (Cameron, 1891) (Hymenoptera) is a gregarious endoparasitoid used in applied biological control against Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera). In this study, we characterize the larval external morphology and the number of instars of C. flavipes. Parasitized larvae of D. saccharalis were sampled from the 1st to the 10th day after parasitism and dissected in an anticoagulant buffer for collection of C. flavipes immatures. Immatures were processed for scanning electron microscopy. Larvae of C. flavipes were prepared in NaOH solution and slide mounted to allow for mandible size measurements. Analysis of measurements of the parasitoid larval mandible size indicated that C. flavipes has three instars. Newly hatched larvae are caudate-mandibulate, assuming a hymenopteriform shape later in their development. The anal vesicle began to expand in the first instar and, once expanded, remained unchanged up to the beginning of the third instar. At the third instar, the anal vesicle decreased in volume. Herein we report the development and possible functions of the larval external structures modified during the development of C. flavipes, as for example their role in aiding newly-eclosed larvae to avoid the host immune response and to move within the host. To summarize the morphological changes during parasitoid growth, we should mention that the modifications in the anal vesicle were correlated with the feeding activity, and the maintenance of the anal vesicle indicates that this structure remained functional, probably playing a role in nutrient absorption and host regulation. On the other hand, the mandibles of early stage larvae are probably used to assist the parasitoid larvae during eclosion. (AU)