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Depth of maximum of air-shower profiles at the Pierre Auger Observatory. II. Composition implications

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Autor(es):
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Aab, A. [1] ; Abreu, P. [2, 3] ; Aglietta, M. [4, 5] ; Ahn, E. J. [6] ; Al Samarai, I. [7] ; Albuquerque, I. F. M. [8] ; Allekotte, I. [9, 10] ; Allen, J. [11] ; Allison, P. [12] ; Almela, A. [13, 14] ; Alvarez Castillo, J. [15] ; Alvarez-Muniz, J. [16] ; Batista, R. Alves [17] ; Ambrosio, M. [18, 19] ; Aminaei, A. [20] ; Anchordoqui, L. [21] ; Andringa, S. [2, 3] ; Aramo, C. [18, 19] ; Aranda, V. M. [22] ; Arqueros, F. [22] ; Asorey, H. [9, 10] ; Assis, P. [2, 3] ; Aublin, J. [23, 24] ; Ave, M. [16] ; Avenier, M. [25] ; Avila, G. [26, 27] ; Awal, N. [11] ; Badescu, A. M. [28] ; Barber, K. B. [29] ; Baeuml, J. [30] ; Baus, C. [30] ; Beatty, J. J. [12] ; Becker, K. H. [31] ; Bellido, J. A. [29] ; Berat, C. [25] ; Bertania, M. E. [4, 5] ; Bertou, X. [9, 10] ; Biermann, P. L. [32] ; Billoir, P. [23, 24] ; Blaess, S. [29] ; Blanco, M. [23, 24] ; Bleve, C. [33, 34] ; Bluemer, H. [30, 35] ; Bohacova, M. [36] ; Boncioli, D. [37] ; Bonifazi, C. [38] ; Bonino, R. [4, 5] ; Borodai, N. [39] ; Brack, J. [40] ; Brancus, I. [41] ; Bridgeman, A. [35] ; Brogueira, P. [2, 3] ; Brown, W. C. [42] ; Buchholz, P. [1] ; Bueno, A. [43, 44] ; Buitink, S. [20] ; Buscemi, M. [18, 19] ; Caballero-Mora, K. S. [45] ; Caccianiga, B. [46, 47] ; Caccianiga, L. [23, 24] ; Candusso, M. [48, 49] ; Caramete, L. [32] ; Caruso, R. [50, 51] ; Castellina, A. [4, 5] ; Cataldi, G. [33, 34] ; Cazon, L. [2, 3] ; Cester, R. [52, 5] ; Chavez, A. G. [53] ; Chiavassa, A. [4, 5] ; Chinellato, J. A. [54] ; Chudoba, J. [36] ; Cilmo, M. [18, 19] ; Clay, R. W. [29] ; Cocciolo, G. [33, 34] ; Colalillo, R. [18, 19] ; Coleman, A. [55] ; Collica, L. [46, 47] ; Coluccia, M. R. [33, 34] ; Conceicao, R. [2, 3] ; Contreras, F. [26] ; Cooper, M. J. [29] ; Cordier, A. [56] ; Coutu, S. [55] ; Covault, C. E. [57] ; Cronin, J. [58] ; Curutiu, A. [32] ; Dallier, R. [59, 60] ; Daniel, B. [54] ; Dasso, S. [61, 62, 63] ; Daumiller, K. [35] ; Dawson, B. R. [29] ; de Almeida, R. M. [64] ; De Domenico, M. [50, 51] ; de Jong, S. J. [20, 65] ; de Mello Neto, J. R. T. [38] ; De Mitri, I. [33, 34] ; de Oliveira, J. [64] ; de Souza, V. [66] ; del Peral, L. [67] ; Deligny, O. [7] ; Dembinski, H. [35] ; Dhital, N. [68] ; Di Giulio, C. [48, 49] ; Di Matteo, A. [69, 70] ; Diaz, J. C. [68] ; Diaz Castro, M. L. [54] ; Diogo, F. [2, 3] ; Dobrigkeit, C. [54] ; Docters, W. [71] ; D'Olivo, J. C. [15] ; Dorofeev, A. [40] ; Hasankiadeh, Q. Dorosti [35] ; Dova, M. T. [72, 73] ; Ebr, J. [36] ; Engel, R. [35] ; Erdmann, M. [74] ; Erfani, M. [1] ; Escobar, C. O. [6, 54] ; Espadanal, J. [2, 3] ; Etchegoyen, A. [13, 14] ; Luis, P. Facal San [58] ; Falcke, H. [20, 65, 75] ; Fang, K. [58] ; Farrar, G. [11] ; Fauth, A. C. [54] ; Fazzini, N. [6] ; Ferguson, A. P. [57] ; Fernandes, M. [38] ; Fick, B. [68] ; Figueira, J. M. [14] ; Filevich, A. [14] ; Filipcic, A. [76, 77] ; Fox, B. D. [78] ; Fratu, O. [28] ; Froehlich, U. [1] ; Fuchs, B. [30] ; Fuji, T. [58] ; Gaior, R. [23, 24] ; Garcia, B. [79, 80] ; Garcia Roca, S. T. [16] ; Garcia-Gamez, D. [56] ; Garcia-Pinto, D. [22] ; Garilli, G. [50, 51] ; Gascon Bravo, A. [43, 44] ; Gate, F. [60] ; Gemmeke, H. [81] ; Ghia, P. L. [23, 24] ; Giaccari, U. [38] ; Giammarchi, M. [46, 47] ; Giller, M. [82] ; Glaser, C. [74] ; Glass, H. [6] ; Gomez Berisso, M. [9, 10] ; Gomez Vitale, P. F. [26, 27] ; Goncalves, P. [2, 3] ; Gonzalez, J. G. [30] ; Gonzalez, N. [14] ; Gookin, B. [40] ; Gordon, J. [12] ; Gorgi, A. [4, 5] ; Gorham, P. [78] ; Gouffon, P. [8] ; Grebe, S. [20, 65] ; Griffith, N. [12] ; Grillo, A. F. [37] ; Grubb, T. D. [29] ; Guarino, F. [18, 19] ; Guedes, G. P. [83] ; Hampel, M. R. [14] ; Hansen, P. [72, 73] ; Harari, D. [9, 10] ; Harrison, T. A. [29] ; Hartmann, S. [74] ; Harton, J. L. [40] ; Haungs, A. [35] ; Hebbeker, T. [74] ; Heck, D. [35] ; Heimann, P. [1] ; Herve, A. E. [35] ; Hill, G. C. [29] ; Hojvat, C. [6] ; Hollon, N. [58] ; Holt, E. [35] ; Homola, P. [31] ; Hoerandel, J. R. [20, 65] ; Horvath, P. [84] ; Hrabovsky, M. [36, 84] ; Huber, D. [30] ; Huege, T. [35] ; Insolia, A. [50, 51] ; Isar, P. G. [85] ; Jandt, I. [31] ; Jansen, S. [20, 65] ; Jarne, C. [72, 73] ; Josebachuili, M. [14] ; Kaeaepae, A. [31] ; Kambeitz, O. [30] ; Kampert, K. H. [31] ; Kasper, P. [6] ; Katkov, I. [30] ; Kegl, B. [56] ; Keilhauer, B. [35] ; Keivani, A. [55] ; Kemp, E. [54] ; Kieckhafer, R. M. [68] ; Klages, H. O. [35] ; Kleifges, M. [81] ; Kleinfeller, J. [26] ; Krause, R. [74] ; Krohm, N. [31] ; Kroemer, O. [81] ; Kruppke-Hansen, D. [31] ; Kuempel, D. [74] ; Kunka, N. [81] ; LaHurd, D. [57] ; Latronico, L. [4, 5] ; Lauer, R. [86] ; Lauscher, M. [74] ; Lautridou, P. [60] ; Le Coz, S. [25] ; Leao, M. S. A. B. [87] ; Lebrun, D. [25] ; Lebrun, P. [6] ; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A. [88] ; Letessier-Selvon, A. [23, 24] ; Lhenry-Yvon, I. [7] ; Link, K. [30] ; Lopez, R. [89] ; Lopez Agueera, A. [16] ; Louedec, K. [25] ; Lozano Bahilo, J. [43, 44] ; Lu, L. [31, 90] ; Lucero, A. [14] ; Ludwig, M. [30] ; Malacari, M. [29] ; Maldera, S. [4, 5] ; Mallamaci, M. [46, 47] ; Maller, J. [60] ; Mandat, D. [36] ; Mantsch, P. [6] ; Mariazzi, A. G. [73, 72] ; Marin, V. [60] ; Maris, I. C. [43, 44] ; Marsella, G. [33, 34] ; Martello, D. [33, 34] ; Martin, L. [60, 59] ; Martinez, H. [45] ; Martinez Bravo, O. [89] ; Martraire, D. [7] ; Masias Meza, J. J. [61, 62] ; Mathes, H. J. [35] ; Mathys, S. [31] ; Matthews, J. [91] ; Matthews, J. A. J. [86] ; Matthiae, G. [48, 49] ; Maurel, D. [30] ; Maurizio, D. [92] ; Mayotte, E. [93] ; Mazur, P. O. [6] ; Medina, C. [93] ; Medina-Tanco, G. [15] ; Meissner, R. [74] ; Melissas, M. [30] ; Melo, D. [14] ; Menshikov, A. [81] ; Messina, S. [71] ; Meyhandan, R. [78] ; Micanovic, S. [94] ; Micheletti, M. I. [95, 96] ; Middendorf, L. [74] ; Minaya, I. A. [22] ; Miramonti, L. [46, 47] ; Mitrica, B. [41] ; Molina-Bueno, L. [43, 44] ; Mollerach, S. [9, 10] ; Monasor, M. [58] ; Ragaigne, D. Monnier [56] ; Montanet, F. [25] ; Morello, C. [4, 5] ; Mostafa, M. [55] ; Moura, C. A. [88] ; Muller, M. A. [97, 54] ; Mueller, G. [74] ; Mueller, S. [35] ; Muenchmeyer, M. [23, 24] ; Mussa, R. [52, 5] ; Navarra, G. [4, 5] ; Navas, S. [43, 44] ; Necesal, P. [36] ; Nellen, L. [15] ; Nelles, A. [20, 65] ; Neuser, J. [31] ; Nguyen, P. [29] ; Niechciol, M. [1] ; Niemietz, L. [31] ; Niggemann, T. [74] ; Nitz, D. [68] ; Nosek, D. [98] ; Novotny, V. [98] ; Nozka, L. [84] ; Ochilo, L. [1] ; Olinto, A. [58] ; Oliveira, M. [2, 3] ; Pacheco, N. [67] ; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D. [54] ; Palatka, M. [36] ; Pallotta, J. [99, 61] ; Palmieri, N. [30] ; Papenbreer, P. [31] ; Parente, G. [16] ; Parra, A. [16] ; Paul, T. [21, 100] ; Pech, M. [36] ; Pekala, J. [39] ; Pelayo, R. [89] ; Pepe, I. M. [101] ; Perrone, L. [33, 34] ; Petermann, E. [102] ; Peters, C. [74] ; Petrera, S. [69, 103, 70] ; Petrov, Y. [40] ; Phuntsok, J. [55] ; Piegaia, R. [62, 61] ; Pierog, T. [35] ; Pieroni, P. [61, 62] ; Pimenta, M. [2, 3] ; Pirronello, V. [50, 51] ; Platino, M. [14] ; Plum, M. [74] ; Porcelli, A. [35] ; Porowski, C. [39] ; Prado, R. R. [66] ; Privitera, P. [58] ; Prouza, M. [36] ; Purrello, V. [9, 10] ; Quel, E. J. [99, 61] ; Querchfeld, S. [31] ; Quinn, S. [57] ; Rautenberg, J. [31] ; Ravel, O. [60] ; Ravignani, D. [14] ; Revenu, B. [60] ; Ridky, J. [36] ; Riggi, S. [16, 104] ; Risse, M. [1] ; Ristori, P. [99, 61] ; Rizi, V. [69, 70] ; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W. [16] ; Rodriguez Cabo, I. [16] ; Rodriguez Fernandez, G. [16, 48, 49] ; Rodriguez Rojo, J. [26] ; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D. [67] ; Rogozin, D. [35] ; Ros, G. [67] ; Rosado, J. [22] ; Rossler, T. [84] ; Roth, M. [35] ; Roulet, E. [9, 10] ; Rovero, A. C. [63] ; Saffi, S. J. [29] ; Saftoiu, A. [41] ; Salamida, F. [7] ; Salazar, H. [89] ; Saleh, A. [77] ; Greus, F. Salesa [55] ; Salina, G. [48, 49] ; Sanchez, F. [14] ; Sanchez-Lucas, P. [43, 44] ; Santo, C. E. [2, 3] ; Santos, E. [54] ; Santos, E. M. [8] ; Sarazin, F. [93] ; Sarkar, B. [31] ; Sarmento, R. [2, 3] ; Sato, R. [26] ; Scharf, N. [74] ; Scherini, V. [33, 34] ; Schieler, H. [35] ; Schiffer, P. [17] ; Schmidt, D. [35] ; Scholten, O. [71] ; Schoorlemmer, H. [20, 65, 78] ; Schovanek, P. [36] ; Schulz, A. [35] ; Schulz, J. [20] ; Schumacher, J. [74] ; Sciutto, S. J. [73, 72] ; Segreto, A. [104] ; Settimo, M. [23, 24] ; Shadkam, A. [91] ; Shellard, R. C. [92] ; Sidelnik, I. [9, 10] ; Sigl, G. [17] ; Sima, O. [105] ; Smialkowski, A. [82] ; Smida, R. [35] ; Snow, G. R. [102] ; Sommers, P. [55] ; Sorokin, J. [29] ; Squartini, R. [26] ; Srivastava, Y. N. [100] ; Stanic, S. [77] ; Stapleton, J. [12] ; Stasielak, J. [39] ; Stephan, M. [74] ; Stutz, A. [25] ; Suarez, F. [14] ; Suomijaervi, T. [7] ; Supanitsky, A. D. [63] ; Sutherland, M. S. [12] ; Swain, J. [100] ; Szadkowski, Z. [82] ; Szuba, M. [35] ; Taborda, O. A. [9, 10] ; Tapia, A. [14] ; Tartare, M. [25] ; Tepe, A. [1] ; Theodoro, V. M. [54] ; Timmermans, C. [20, 65] ; Todero Peixoto, C. J. [106] ; Toma, G. [41] ; Tomankova, L. [35] ; Tome, B. [2, 3] ; Tonachini, A. [52, 5] ; Torralba Elipe, G. [16] ; Torres Machado, D. [38] ; Travnicek, P. [36] ; Trovato, E. [50, 51] ; Tueros, M. [16] ; Ulrich, R. [35] ; Unger, M. [35] ; Urban, M. [74] ; Valdes Galicia, J. F. [15] ; Valino, I. [16] ; Valore, L. [18, 19] ; van Aar, G. [20] ; van Bodegom, P. [29] ; van den Berg, A. M. [71] ; van Velzen, S. [20] ; van Vliet, A. [17] ; Varela, E. [89] ; Vargas Cardenas, B. [15] ; Varner, G. [78] ; Vazquez, J. R. [22] ; Vazquez, R. A. [16] ; Veberic, D. [56] ; Verzi, V. [48, 49] ; Vicha, J. [36] ; Videla, M. [14] ; Villasenor, L. [53] ; Vlcek, B. [67] ; Vorobiov, S. [77] ; Wahlberg, H. [72, 73] ; Wainberg, O. [13, 14] ; Walz, D. [74] ; Watson, A. A. [90] ; Weber, M. [81] ; Weidenhaupt, K. [74] ; Weindl, A. [35] ; Werner, F. [30] ; Widom, A. [100] ; Wiencke, L. [93] ; Wilczynska, B. [39] ; Wilczynski, H. [39] ; Will, M. [35] ; Williams, C. [58] ; Winchen, T. [31] ; Wittkowski, D. [31] ; Wundheiler, B. [14] ; Wykes, S. [20] ; Yamamoto, T. [58] ; Yapici, T. [68] ; Yuan, G. [91] ; Yushkov, A. [1] ; Zamorano, B. [43, 44] ; Zas, E. [16] ; Zavrtanik, D. [76, 77] ; Zavrtanik, M. [76, 77] ; Zaw, I. [11] ; Zepeda, A. [45] ; Zhou, J. [58] ; Zhu, Y. [81] ; Zimbres Silva, M. [54] ; Ziolkowski, M. [1] ; Zuccarello, F. [50, 51] ; Collaboration, Pierre Auger
Número total de Autores: 486
Afiliação do(s) autor(es):
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[1] Univ Siegen, D-57068 Siegen - Germany
[2] Univ Lisbon, Lab Instrumentacao & Fis Expt Particulas LIP, P-1699 Lisbon - Portugal
[3] Univ Lisbon, IST, P-1699 Lisbon - Portugal
[4] Univ Turin, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino INAF, Turin - Italy
[5] Sezione Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Turin - Italy
[6] Fermilab Natl Accelerator Lab, Batavia, IL - USA
[7] Univ Paris 11, CNRS, IN2P3, IPNO, F-91405 Orsay - France
[8] Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Fis, BR-01498 Sao Paulo, SP - Brazil
[9] Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, UNCuyo, Ctr Atom Bariloche, San Carlos De Bariloche, Rio Negro - Argentina
[10] Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, UNCuyo, Inst Balseiro CNEA, San Carlos De Bariloche, Rio Negro - Argentina
[11] NYU, New York, NY - USA
[12] Ohio State Univ, Columbus, OH 43210 - USA
[13] Univ Tecnol Nacl, Fac Reg Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, DF - Argentina
[14] UNSAM, CONICET, Inst Tecnol Detecc & Astroparticulas CNEA, Buenos Aires, DF - Argentina
[15] Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Mexico City 04510, DF - Mexico
[16] Univ Santiago de Compostela, Santiago De Compostela - Spain
[17] Univ Hamburg, Hamburg - Germany
[18] Univ Naples Federico II, Naples - Italy
[19] Sezione Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Naples - Italy
[20] Radboud Univ Nijmegen, IMAPP, NL-6525 ED Nijmegen - Netherlands
[21] CUNY Herbert H Lehman Coll, Dept Phys & Astron, New York, NY - USA
[22] Univ Complutense Madrid, Madrid - Spain
[23] Univ Paris 06, CNRS, IN2P3, LPNHE, Paris - France
[24] Univ Paris 07, CNRS, IN2P3, LPNHE, Paris - France
[25] Univ Grenoble Alpes, LPSC, CNRS, IN2P3, Grenoble - France
[26] Observ Pierre Auger, Malargue - Argentina
[27] Comis Nacl Energia Atom, Malargue - Argentina
[28] Univ Politehn Bucuresti, Bucharest - Romania
[29] Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA - Australia
[30] Karlsruhe Inst Technol, Inst Expt Kernphys IEKP, D-76021 Karlsruhe - Germany
[31] Berg Univ Wuppertal, Wuppertal - Germany
[32] Max Planck Inst Radioastron, D-53121 Bonn - Germany
[33] Univ Salento, Dipartimento Matemat & Fis E De Giorgi, Lecce - Italy
[34] Sezione Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Lecce - Italy
[35] Karlsruhe Inst Technol, Inst Kernphys, D-76021 Karlsruhe - Germany
[36] Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys, Prague - Czech Republic
[37] Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Lab Nazl Gran Sasso, Laquila - Italy
[38] Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Inst Fis, Rio De Janeiro, RJ - Brazil
[39] Inst Nucl Phys PAN, Krakow - Poland
[40] Colorado State Univ, Ft Collins, CO 80523 - USA
[41] Horia Hulubei Natl Inst Phys & Nucl Engn, Bucharest 077125 - Romania
[42] Colorado State Univ, Pueblo, CO - USA
[43] Univ Granada, Granada - Spain
[44] CAFPE, Granada - Spain
[45] Ctr Invest & Estudios Avanzados IPN CINVESTAV, Mexico City, DF - Mexico
[46] Univ Milan, Milan - Italy
[47] Sezione Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Milan - Italy
[48] Univ Roma Tor Vergata, I-00173 Rome - Italy
[49] Sezione Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Rome - Italy
[50] Univ Catania, Catania - Italy
[51] Sezione Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Catania - Italy
[52] Univ Turin, Turin - Italy
[53] Univ Michoacana, Morelia, Michoacan - Mexico
[54] Univ Estadual Campinas, IFGW, Sao Paulo - Brazil
[55] Penn State Univ, University Pk, PA 16802 - USA
[56] Univ Paris 11, CNRS, IN2P3, LAL, F-91405 Orsay - France
[57] Case Western Reserve Univ, Cleveland, OH 44106 - USA
[58] Univ Chicago, Enrico Fermi Inst, Chicago, IL 60637 - USA
[59] Observ Paris, CNRS, INSU, Stn Radioastron Nancay, Nancay - France
[60] Univ Nantes, SUBATECH, Ecole Mines Nantes, CNRS, IN2P3, Nantes - France
[61] Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, RA-1033 Buenos Aires, DF - Argentina
[62] Univ Buenos Aires, Dept Fis, FCEyN, Buenos Aires, DF - Argentina
[63] Univ Buenos Aires, Inst Astron & Fis Espacio, CONICET, Buenos Aires, DF - Argentina
[64] Univ Fed Fluminense, EEIMVR, Rio De Janeiro - Brazil
[65] Nikhef, Amsterdam - Netherlands
[66] Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Fis Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo - Brazil
[67] Univ Alcala de Henares, E-28871 Alcala De Henares - Spain
[68] Michigan Technol Univ, Houghton, MI 49931 - USA
[69] Univ Aquila, Dipartimento Sci Fis & Chim, I-67100 Laquila - Italy
[70] Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Legnaro - Italy
[71] Univ Groningen, Adv Radiat Technol Ctr, KVI, Groningen - Netherlands
[72] Univ Nacl La Plata, IFLP, RA-1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires - Argentina
[73] Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, La Plata, Buenos Aires - Argentina
[74] Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst A 3, Aachen - Germany
[75] ASTRON, Dwingeloo - Netherlands
[76] Jozef Stefan Inst, Expt Particle Phys Dept, Ljubljana - Slovenia
[77] Univ Nova Gorica, Lab Astroparticle Phys, Nova Gorica - Slovenia
[78] Univ Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 - USA
[79] UNSAM, CONICET, Inst Tecnol Detecc & Astroparticulas CNEA, Mendoza - Argentina
[80] Natl Technol Univ, Fac Mendoza, CONICET, CNEA, Mendoza - Argentina
[81] Karlsruhe Inst Technol, Inst Prozessdatenverarbeitung & Elekt, D-76021 Karlsruhe - Germany
[82] Univ Lodz, PL-90131 Lodz - Poland
[83] Univ Estadual Feira de Santana, Feira De Santana, BA - Brazil
[84] Palacky Univ, RCPTM, CR-77147 Olomouc - Czech Republic
[85] Inst Space Sci, Bucharest - Romania
[86] Univ New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 - USA
[87] Fac Independente Nordeste, Vitoria Da Conquista - Brazil
[88] Univ Fed ABC, Sao Paulo - Brazil
[89] Benemerita Univ Autonoma Puebla, Puebla - Mexico
[90] Univ Leeds, Sch Phys & Astron, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire - England
[91] Louisiana State Univ, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 - USA
[92] Ctr Brasileiro Pesquisas Fis, Rio De Janeiro, RJ - Brazil
[93] Colorado Sch Mines, Golden, CO 80401 - USA
[94] Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Zagreb 10000 - Croatia
[95] UNR, CONICET, Inst Fis Rosario IFIR, Rosario, Santa Fe - Argentina
[96] UNR, Fac Ciencias Bioquim & Farmaceut, Rosario, Santa Fe - Argentina
[97] Univ Fed Pelotas, Pelotas, RS - Brazil
[98] Charles Univ Prague, Fac Math & Phys, Inst Particle & Nucl Phys, Prague - Czech Republic
[99] CITEDEF, Ctr Invest Laseres & Aplicac, Buenos Aires, DF - Argentina
[100] Northeastern Univ, Boston, MA 02115 - USA
[101] Univ Fed Bahia, Salvador, BA - Brazil
[102] Univ Nebraska, Lincoln, NE - USA
[103] Gran Sasso Sci Inst INFN, Laquila - Italy
[104] Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo INAF, Palermo - Italy
[105] Univ Bucharest, Dept Phys, Bucharest - Romania
[106] Univ Sao Paulo, Escola Engn Lorena, Sao Paulo - Brazil
Número total de Afiliações: 106
Tipo de documento: Artigo Científico
Fonte: Physical Review D; v. 90, n. 12 DEC 31 2014.
Citações Web of Science: 134
Resumo

Using the data taken at the Pierre Auger Observatory between December 2004 and December 2012, we have examined the implications of the distributions of depths of atmospheric shower maximum (X-max), using a hybrid technique, for composition and hadronic interaction models. We do this by fitting the distributions with predictions from a variety of hadronic interaction models for variations in the composition of the primary cosmic rays and examining the quality of the fit. Regardless of what interaction model is assumed, we find that our data are not well described by a mix of protons and iron nuclei over most of the energy range. Acceptable fits can be obtained when intermediate masses are included, and when this is done consistent results for the proton and iron-nuclei contributions can be found using the available models. We observe a strong energy dependence of the resulting proton fractions, and find no support from any of the models for a significant contribution from iron nuclei. However, we also observe a significant disagreement between the models with respect to the relative contributions of the intermediate components. (AU)

Processo FAPESP: 10/07359-6 - Estudo dos raios cósmicos de mais altas energias com o Observatório Pierre Auger
Beneficiário:Carola Dobrigkeit Chinellato
Linha de fomento: Auxílio à Pesquisa - Temático
Processo FAPESP: 99/05404-3 - Observatório Pierre Auger
Beneficiário:Carlos Ourivio Escobar
Linha de fomento: Auxílio à Pesquisa - Temático