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(Referência obtida automaticamente do Web of Science, por meio da informação sobre o financiamento pela FAPESP e o número do processo correspondente, incluída na publicação pelos autores.)

The oxidation of p-phenylenediamine, an ingredient used for permanent hair dyeing purposes, leads to the formation of hydroxyl radicals: Oxidative stress and DNA damage in human immortalized keratinocytes

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Autor(es):
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Zanoni, Thalita B. [1] ; Hudari, Felipe [2] ; Munnia, Armelle [3] ; Peluso, Marco [3] ; Godschalk, Roger W. [4] ; Zanoni, Maria Valnice B. [2] ; den Hartog, Gertjan J. M. [4] ; Bast, Aalt [4] ; Barros, Silvia B. M. [5] ; Maria-Engler, Silvya S. [5] ; Hageman, Geja J. [4] ; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma [1]
Número total de Autores: 12
Afiliação do(s) autor(es):
[1] Univ Sao Paulo FCFRP USP, Sch Pharmaceut Sci, Dept Environm Toxicol, BR-14040903 Ribeirao Preto, SP - Brazil
[2] Univ Estadual Paulista UNESP, Inst Chem, Dept Analyt Chem, BR-14801970 Araraquara, SP - Brazil
[3] ISPO Canc Prevent & Res Inst, Canc Prevent Lab, Canc Risk Factor Branch, I-500139 Florence - Italy
[4] Maastricht Univ, Sch Nutr & Translat Res Metab, Res Inst NUTRIM, Dept Toxicol, NL-6200 MD Maastricht - Netherlands
[5] Univ Sao Paulo FCF USP, Sch Pharmaceut Sci, Dept Clin Chem & Toxicol, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo - Brazil
Número total de Afiliações: 5
Tipo de documento: Artigo Científico
Fonte: Toxicology Letters; v. 239, n. 3, p. 194-204, DEC 15 2015.
Citações Web of Science: 11
Resumo

The hair-dyeing ingredient, p-phenylenediamine (PPD), was previously reported to be mutagenic, possibly by inducing oxidative stress. However, the exact mechanism of PPD in inducing oxidative stress upon skin exposure during hair-dyeing in human keratinocytes remains unknown. The aim of our studies was therefore to investigate the toxicity of PPD and its by-products in human immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT) after auto-oxidation and after reaction with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). We found that the PPD half maximal effective cytotoxic concentration (EC50) to HaCaT is 39.37 and 35.63 mu g/mL after 24 and 48 h, respectively, without addition of H2O2 to induce oxidation. When PPD (10 or 100 mu g/mL) is combined with 10.5 mu g/mL of H2O2, intracellular ROS production by HaCaT after 1 h was significantly increased and enhanced levels of DNA damage were observed after 4 h of exposure. After 24 h incubations, 20 mu g/mL of PPD increased the level of DNA oxidation in HaCaT. Also, we found that the in vitro reaction between PPD and H2O2, even below the maximum allowance by cosmetic industries, released hydroxyl radicals which can damage DNA. Taken together, we conclude that PPD alone and when combined with H2O2 increases the formation of reactive oxygen species in human keratinocytes, leading to oxidative stress and subsequent DNA damage. These alterations suggest that the mechanism by which PPD exposure, alone or combined with H2O2, damages keratinocytes by the formation of the high reactive HO center dot radicals. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. (AU)

Processo FAPESP: 10/07116-6 - Avaliação do perfil de citotoxicidade, mutagenicidade e genotoxicidade dos corantes corantes Basic Red 51, basic yellow 57 e P-Fenilenodiamina usados na tintura de cabelo em células da pele
Beneficiário:Thalita Boldrin Zanoni
Linha de fomento: Bolsas no Brasil - Doutorado
Processo FAPESP: 08/10449-7 - Avaliação da ocorrência, toxicidade/genotoxicidade e processos para degradação de corantes em efluentes e águas superficiais
Beneficiário:Maria Valnice Boldrin
Linha de fomento: Auxílio à Pesquisa - Temático
Processo FAPESP: 12/05961-6 - Estudos in vitro do potencial de stress oxidativo e de imunotoxicidade dos corantes basic red 51 e basic yellow 57 em queratinócitos humanos
Beneficiário:Thalita Boldrin Zanoni
Linha de fomento: Bolsas no Exterior - Estágio de Pesquisa - Doutorado