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(Referência obtida automaticamente do Web of Science, por meio da informação sobre o financiamento pela FAPESP e o número do processo correspondente, incluída na publicação pelos autores.)

Pollination ecology of two species of Elleanthus (Orchidaceae): novel mechanisms and underlying adaptations to hummingbird pollination

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Autor(es):
Nunes, C. E. P. [1, 2] ; Amorim, F. W. [3] ; Mayer, J. L. S. [2] ; Sazima, M. [2]
Número total de Autores: 4
Afiliação do(s) autor(es):
[1] Univ Estadual Campinas, Inst Biol, Programa Posgrad Biol Vegetal, BR-13083970 Campinas, SP - Brazil
[2] Univ Estadual Campinas, Inst Biol, Dept Biol Vegetal, Caixa Postal 6109, BR-13083970 Campinas, SP - Brazil
[3] Univ Estadual Paulista, Dept Bot, Inst Biociencias, Botucatu, SP - Brazil
Número total de Afiliações: 3
Tipo de documento: Artigo Científico
Fonte: Plant Biology; v. 18, n. 1, SI, p. 15-25, JAN 2016.
Citações Web of Science: 5
Resumo

Relationships among floral biology, floral micromorphology and pollinator behaviour in bird-pollinated orchids are important issues to understand the evolution of the huge flower diversity within Orchidaceae. We aimed to investigate floral mechanisms underlying the interaction with pollinators in two hummingbird-pollinated orchids occurring in the Atlantic forest. We assessed floral biology, nectar traits, nectary and column micromorphologies, breeding systems and pollinators. In both species, nectar is secreted by lip calli through spaces between the medial lamellar surfaces of epidermal cells. Such a form of floral nectar secretion has not been previously described. Both species present functional protandry and are self-compatible yet pollinator-dependent. Fruit set in hand-pollination experiments was more than twice that under natural conditions, evidencing pollen limitation. The absence of fruit set in interspecific crosses suggests the existence of post-pollination barriers between these sympatric co-flowering species. In Elleanthus brasiliensis, fruits resulting from cross-pollination and natural conditions were heavier than those resulting from self-pollination, suggesting advantages to cross-pollination. Hummingbirds pollinated both species, which share at least one pollinator species. Species differences in floral morphologies led to distinct pollination mechanisms. In E. brasiliensis, attachment of pollinarium to the hummingbird bill occurs through a lever apparatus formed by an appendage in the column, another novelty to our knowledge of orchid pollination. In E. crinipes, pollinarium attachment occurs by simple contact with the bill during insertion into the flower tube, which fits tightly around it. The novelties described here illustrate the overlooked richness in ecology and morphophysiology in Orchidaceae. (AU)

Processo FAPESP: 03/12595-7 - Composição florística, estrutura e funcionamento da Floresta Ombrófila Densa dos Núcleos Picinguaba e Santa Virgínia do Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, estado de São Paulo, Brasil
Beneficiário:Carlos Alfredo Joly
Linha de fomento: Auxílio à Pesquisa - Programa BIOTA - Temático
Processo FAPESP: 07/58666-3 - Diversidade, composição florística e biologia reprodutiva da comunidade de plantas esfingófilas de Floresta Ombrófila Densa Montana - Mata Atlântica, no sudoeste brasileiro
Beneficiário:Felipe Wanderley de Amorim
Linha de fomento: Bolsas no Brasil - Doutorado