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Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers

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Autor(es):
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Aab, A. [1] ; Abreu, P. [2, 3] ; Aglietta, M. [4, 5] ; Ahn, E. J. [6] ; Al Samarai, I. [7] ; Albuquerque, I. F. M. [8] ; Allekotte, I. [9, 10] ; Allison, P. [11] ; Almela, A. [12, 13] ; Alvarez Castillo, J. [14] ; Alvarez-Muniz, J. [15] ; Batista, R. Alves [16] ; Ambrosio, M. [17, 18] ; Aminaei, A. [19] ; Anastasi, G. A. [20, 21] ; Anchordoqui, L. [22] ; Andringa, S. [2, 3] ; Aramo, C. [17, 18] ; Arqueros, F. [23] ; Arsene, N. [24] ; Asorey, H. [9, 10, 25] ; Assis, P. [2, 3] ; Aublin, J. [26, 27] ; Avila, G. [28, 29] ; Awal, N. [30] ; Badescu, A. M. [31] ; Baus, C. [32] ; Beatty, J. J. [11] ; Becker, K. H. [33] ; Bellido, J. A. [34] ; Berat, C. [35] ; Bertaina, M. E. [36, 4] ; Bertou, X. [9, 10] ; Biermann, P. L. [37] ; Billoir, P. [27, 26] ; Blaess, S. G. [34] ; Blanco, A. [2, 3] ; Blanco, M. [26, 27] ; Blazek, J. [38] ; Bleve, C. [39, 40] ; Bluemer, H. [32, 41] ; Bohacova, M. [38] ; Boncioli, D. ; Bonifazi, C. [42, 43] ; Borodai, N. [44] ; Brack, J. [45] ; Brancus, I. [46] ; Bretz, T. [47] ; Bridgeman, A. [41] ; Brogueira, P. [2, 3] ; Buchholz, P. [1] ; Bueno, A. [48, 49] ; Buitink, S. [19] ; Buscemi, M. [17, 18] ; Caballero-Mora, K. S. [50] ; Caccianiga, B. [51, 52] ; Caccianiga, L. [26, 27] ; Candusso, M. [53, 54] ; Caramete, L. [55] ; Caruso, R. [20, 21] ; Castellina, A. [4, 5] ; Cataldi, G. [39, 40] ; Cazon, L. [2, 3] ; Cester, R. [36, 56] ; Chavez, A. G. [57] ; Chiavassa, A. [36, 4] ; Chinellato, J. A. [58] ; Chudoba, J. [38] ; Cilmo, M. [17, 18] ; Clay, R. W. [34] ; Cocciolo, G. [39, 40] ; Colalillo, R. [17, 18] ; Coleman, A. [59] ; Collica, L. [4] ; Coluccia, M. R. [39, 40] ; Conceicao, R. [2, 3] ; Contreras, F. [28] ; Cooper, M. J. [34] ; Cordier, A. [60] ; Coutu, S. [59] ; Covault, C. E. [61] ; Cronin, J. [62] ; Dallier, R. [63, 64] ; Daniel, B. [58] ; Dasso, S. [65, 66, 67] ; Daumiller, K. [41] ; Dawson, B. R. [34] ; de Almeida, R. M. [68] ; de Jong, S. J. [19, 69] ; De Mauro, G. [19] ; de Mello Neto, J. R. T. [42] ; De Mitri, I. [39, 40] ; de Oliveira, J. [68] ; de Souza, V. [70] ; del Pera, L. [71] ; Deligny, O. [7] ; Dhita, N. [72] ; Di Giulio, C. [53, 54] ; Di Matteot, A. [73, 74] ; Diaz, J. C. [72] ; Diaz Castro, M. L. [58] ; Diogo, F. [2, 3] ; Dobrigkeit, C. [58] ; Docters, W. [75] ; D'Olivo, J. C. [14] ; Dorofeev, A. [45] ; Hasankiadeh, Q. Dorosti [41] ; dos Anjos, R. C. [70] ; Dova, M. T. [76, 77] ; Ebr, J. [38] ; Enge, R. [41] ; Erdmann, M. [47] ; Erfani, M. [1] ; Escobar, C. O. [58, 6] ; Eser, J. [32] ; Espadanal, J. [2, 3] ; Etchegoyeng, A. [12, 13] ; Falcke, H. [19, 78, 69] ; Fang, K. [62] ; Farrar, G. [30] ; Fauth, A. C. [58] ; Fazzini, N. [6] ; Ferguson, A. P. [61] ; Fick, B. [72] ; Figueira, J. M. [12] ; Filevich, A. [12] ; Filipcic, A. [79, 80] ; Fratu, O. [31] ; Freire, M. M. [81, 82] ; Fujii, T. [62] ; Garcia, B. [83, 84] ; Garcia-Gamez, D. [60] ; Garcia-Pinto, D. [23] ; Gate, F. [64] ; Gemmeke, H. [85] ; Gherghel-Lascu, A. [46] ; Ghia, P. L. [26, 27] ; Giaccari, U. [42] ; Giammarchi, M. [51, 52] ; Giller, M. [86] ; Glas, D. [86] ; Glaser, C. [47] ; Glass, H. [6] ; Golup, G. [9, 10] ; Gomez Berisso, M. [9, 10] ; Gomez Vitale, P. F. [28, 29] ; Gonzalez, N. [12] ; Gookin, B. [45] ; Gordon, J. [11] ; Gorgi, A. [4, 5] ; Gorham, P. [87] ; Gouffon, P. [8] ; Griffith, N. [11] ; Grillo, A. F. [43] ; Grubb, T. D. [34] ; Guarino, F. [17, 18] ; Guedes, G. P. [88] ; Hampel, M. R. [12] ; Hansen, P. [76, 77] ; Harari, D. [9, 10] ; Harrison, T. A. [34] ; Hartmann, S. [47] ; Harton, J. L. [45] ; Haungs, A. [41] ; Hebbeker, T. [47] ; Heck, D. [41] ; Heimann, P. [1] ; Herve, A. E. [41] ; Hill, G. C. [34] ; Hojvat, C. [6] ; Hohon, N. ; Holt, E. [41] ; Homola, P. [33] ; Horandel, J. R. [19, 69] ; Horvath, P. [89] ; Hrabovsky, M. [38, 89] ; Huber, D. [32] ; Huege, T. [41] ; Insolia, A. [20, 21] ; Isar, P. G. [55] ; Jandt, I. [33] ; Jansen, S. [19, 69] ; Jarne, C. [76, 77] ; Johnsen, J. A. [90] ; Josebachuili, M. [12] ; Kaeaepae, A. [33] ; Kambeitz, O. [32] ; Kampert, K. H. [33] ; Kasper, P. [6] ; Katkov, I. [32] ; Keilhauer, B. [41] ; Kemp, E. [58] ; Kieckhafer, R. M. [72] ; Klages, H. O. [41] ; Kleifges, M. [85] ; Kleinfeller, J. [28] ; Krause, R. [47] ; Krohm, N. [33] ; Kuempe, D. [47] ; Mezek, G. Kukec [80] ; Kunka, N. [85] ; Awad, A. W. Kuotb [41] ; LaHurd, D. [61] ; Lang, A. [32] ; Latronico, L. [4] ; Lauer, R. [91] ; Lauscher, M. [47] ; Lautridou, P. [64] ; Le Coz, S. [35] ; Lebrun, D. [35] ; Lebrun, P. [6] ; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A. [92] ; Letessier-Selvon, A. [27, 26] ; Lhenry-Yvon, I. [7] ; Link, K. [32] ; Lopes, L. [2, 3] ; Lopez, R. [93] ; Lopez Casado, A. [15] ; Louedec, K. [35] ; Lucero, A. [12] ; Malacari, M. [34] ; Mallamaci, M. [51, 52] ; Maller, J. [64] ; Mandat, D. [38] ; Mantsch, P. [6] ; Mariazzi, A. G. ; Marin, V. [64] ; Maris, I. C. [48, 49] ; Marsella, G. [39, 40] ; Martello, D. [39, 40] ; Martinez, H. [94] ; Martinez Bravo, O. [93] ; Martraire, D. [7] ; Masias Meza, J. J. [65, 66] ; Mathes, H. J. [41] ; Mathys, S. [33] ; Matthews, J. [95] ; Matthews, J. A. J. [91] ; Matthiae, G. [53, 54] ; Maurizio, D. [96] ; Mayotte, E. ; Mazur, P. O. [6] ; Medina, C. [90] ; Medina-Tanco, G. [14] ; Meissner, R. [47] ; Meo, V. B. B. ; Melo, D. [12, 42] ; Menshikov, A. [85] ; Messina, S. [75] ; Micheletti, M. I. [82, 81] ; Middendorf, L. [47] ; Minaya, I. A. [23] ; Miramonti, L. [51, 52] ; Mitrica, B. [46] ; Molina-Bueno, L. [48, 49] ; Mollerach, S. [9, 10] ; Montanet, F. [35] ; Morello, C. [4, 5] ; Mostafa, M. [59] ; Moura, C. A. [92] ; Mueller, G. [47] ; Muller, M. A. [58, 97] ; Mueller, S. [41] ; Navas, S. [48, 49] ; Necesa, P. [38] ; Nellen, L. [14] ; Nelles, A. [19, 69] ; Neuser, J. [33] ; Nguyen, P. H. [34] ; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M. [46] ; Niechcio, M. [1] ; Niemietz, L. [33] ; Niggemann, T. [47] ; Nitz, D. [72] ; Nosek, D. [98] ; Novotny, V. [98] ; Nozka, L. [89] ; Nunez, L. A. [25] ; Ochilo, L. [1] ; Oikonomou, F. [59] ; Olinto, A. [62] ; Pacheco, N. [71] ; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D. [58] ; Palatka, M. [38] ; Pallotta, J. [99, 100] ; Papenbreer, P. [33] ; Parente, G. [15] ; Parra, A. [93] ; Paul, T. [101, 22] ; Pech, M. [38] ; Pekala, J. [44] ; Pelayo, R. [102] ; Pepe, I. M. [103] ; Perrone, L. [39, 40] ; Petermann, E. [104] ; Peters, C. [47] ; Petrera, S. [73, 105, 74] ; Petrov, Y. [45] ; Phuntsok, J. [59] ; Piegaia, R. [65, 66] ; Pierog, T. [41] ; Pieroni, P. [65, 66] ; Pimenta, M. [2, 3] ; Pirrone, V. [20, 21] ; Platino, M. [12] ; Plum, M. [47] ; Porcelli, A. [41] ; Porowski, C. [44] ; Prado, R. R. [70] ; Privitera, R. [62] ; Prouza, M. [38] ; Quel, E. J. [99, 100] ; Querchfeld, S. [33] ; Quinn, S. [61] ; Rautenberg, J. [33] ; Rave, O. [64] ; Ravignani, D. [12] ; Reinert, D. [47] ; Revenu, B. [64] ; Ridky, J. [38] ; Risse, M. [1] ; Ristori, P. [100, 99] ; Rizi, V. [73, 74] ; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W. [15] ; Rodriguez Rojo, J. [28] ; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D. [71] ; Rogozin, D. [41] ; Rosado, J. [23] ; Roth, M. [41] ; Roulet, E. [9, 10] ; Rovero, A. C. [67] ; Saffi, S. J. [34] ; Saftoiu, A. [46] ; Salazar, H. [93] ; Saleh, A. [80] ; Greus, F. Salesa [59] ; Salina, G. [53, 54] ; Sanabria Gomez, J. D. [25] ; Sanchez, F. [12] ; Sanchez-Lucas, P. [48, 49] ; Santos, E. M. [8] ; Santos, E. [58] ; Sarazin, F. [90] ; Sarkar, B. [33] ; Sarmento, R. [2, 3] ; Sarmiento-Cano, C. [25] ; Sato, R. [28] ; Scarso, C. [28] ; Schauer, M. [33] ; Scherini, V. [39, 40] ; Schieler, H. [41] ; Schmidt, D. [41] ; Scholten, O. [75, 106] ; Schoorlemmer, H. [87] ; Schovanek, P. [38] ; Schroeder, F. G. [41] ; Schulz, A. [41] ; Schulz, J. [19] ; Schumacher, J. [47] ; Sciutto, S. J. [76, 77] ; Segreto, A. [107] ; Settimo, M. [26, 27] ; Shadkam, A. [95] ; Shellard, R. C. [96] ; Sig, G. [16] ; Sima, O. [24] ; Smialkowski, A. [86] ; Smida, R. [41] ; Snow, G. R. [104] ; Sommers, P. [59] ; Sonntag, S. [1] ; Sorokin, J. [34] ; Squartini, R. [28] ; Srivastava, Y. N. [101] ; Stanca, D. [46] ; Stanic, S. [80] ; Stapleton, J. [11] ; Stasielak, J. [44] ; Stephan, M. [47] ; Stutz, A. [35] ; Suarez, F. [12, 13] ; Suarez Duran, M. [25] ; Suomijaervi, T. [7] ; Supanitsky, A. D. [67] ; Sutherland, M. S. [11] ; Swain, J. [101] ; Szadkowski, Z. [86] ; Taborda, O. A. [9, 10] ; Tapia, A. [12] ; Tepe, A. [1] ; Theodoro, V. M. [58] ; Timmermans, C. [19, 69] ; Todero Peixoto, C. J. [108] ; Toma, G. [46] ; Tomankova, L. [41] ; Tome, B. [2, 3] ; Tonachini, A. [36, 56] ; Torralba Elipe, G. [15] ; Torres Machado, D. [42] ; Travnicek, P. [38] ; Trini, M. [80] ; Ulrich, R. [41] ; Unger, M. [30, 41] ; Urban, M. [47] ; Valdes Galicia, J. F. [14] ; Valino, I. [15] ; Valore, L. [17, 18] ; van Aar, G. [19] ; van Bodegom, P. [34] ; van den Berg, A. M. [75] ; van Velzen, S. [19] ; van Vliet, A. [16] ; Varela, E. [93] ; Vargas Cardenas, B. [14] ; Varner, G. [87] ; Vasquez, R. [42] ; Vazquez, J. R. [23] ; Vazquez, R. A. [15] ; Veberie, D. [41] ; Verzi, V. [53, 54] ; Vicha, J. [38] ; Videla, M. [12] ; Villasenor, L. [57] ; Vlcek, B. [71] ; Vorobiov, S. [80] ; Wahlberg, H. [76, 77] ; Wainberg, O. [12, 13] ; Walz, D. [47] ; Watson, A. A. [109] ; Weber, M. [85] ; Weidenhaupt, K. [47] ; Weindl, A. [41] ; Werner, F. [32] ; Widom, A. [101] ; Wiencke, L. [90] ; Wilczynski, H. [44] ; Winchen, T. [33] ; Wittkowski, D. [33] ; Wundheiler, B. [12] ; Wykes, S. [19] ; Yang, L. [80] ; Yapici, T. [72] ; Yushkov, A. [1] ; Zas, E. [15] ; Zavrtanik, D. [79, 80] ; Zavrtanik, M. [79, 80] ; Zepeda, A. [94] ; Zimmermann, B. [85] ; Ziolkowski, M. [1] ; Zuccarello, F. [20, 21] ; Collaboration, Pierre Auger
Número total de Autores: 451
Afiliação do(s) autor(es):
Mostrar menos -
[1] Univ Siegen, Fachbereich Phys Expt Teilchenphys 7, D-57068 Siegen - Germany
[2] Univ Lisbon, Lab Instrumentacao & Fis Expt Particulas LIP, P-1699 Lisbon - Portugal
[3] Univ Lisbon, Inst Super Tecn, P-1699 Lisbon - Portugal
[4] Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin - Italy
[5] Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, INAF, Turin - Italy
[6] Fermilab Natl Accelerator Lab, Batavia, IL - USA
[7] Univ Paris 11, CNRS, IN2P3, Inst Phys Nucl Orsay, F-91405 Orsay - France
[8] Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Fis, CP 20516, BR-01498 Sao Paulo, SP - Brazil
[9] CNEA UNCuyo CONICET, Ctr Atom Bariloche, San Carlos De Bariloche, Rio Negro - Argentina
[10] CNEA UNCuyo CONICET, Inst Balseiro, San Carlos De Bariloche, Rio Negro - Argentina
[11] Ohio State Univ, Columbus, OH 43210 - USA
[12] UNSAM, CONICET, CNEA, Inst Tecnol Detecc & Astroparticulas, Buenos Aires, DF - Argentina
[13] Univ Tecnol Nacl, Fac Reg Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, DF - Argentina
[14] Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Mexico City 04510, DF - Mexico
[15] Univ Santiago de Compostela, Santiago De Compostela - Spain
[16] Univ Hamburg, Inst Theoret Phys 2, Luruper Chaussee 149, Hamburg - Germany
[17] Univ Naples Federico II, Naples - Italy
[18] Sezione Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Naples - Italy
[19] Radboud Univ Nijmegen, IMAPP, NL-6525 ED Nijmegen - Netherlands
[20] Univ Catania, Catania - Italy
[21] Sezione Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Catania - Italy
[22] CUNY Herbert H Lehman Coll, Dept Phys & Astron, Bronx, NY 10468 - USA
[23] Univ Complutense Madrid, Madrid - Spain
[24] Univ Bucharest, Dept Phys, Bucharest - Romania
[25] Univ Ind Santander, Bucaramanga - Colombia
[26] Univ Paris 07, CNRS, IN2P3, Paris - France
[27] Univ Paris 06, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, Paris - France
[28] Observ Pierre Auger, Malargue - Argentina
[29] Comis Nacl Energia Atom, Malargue - Argentina
[30] NYU, New York, NY - USA
[31] Univ Politehn Bucuresti, Bucharest - Romania
[32] Karlsruhe Inst Technol, Inst Expt Kernphys IEKP, Campus South, D-76021 Karlsruhe - Germany
[33] Berg Univ Wuppertal, Fachbereich Phys C, Wuppertal - Germany
[34] Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA - Australia
[35] Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Phys Subat & Cosmol, Grenoble - France
[36] Univ Turin, Turin - Italy
[37] Max Planck Inst Radioastron, Hugel 69, D-53121 Bonn - Germany
[38] Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys, Prague - Czech Republic
[39] Univ Salento, Dipartimento Matemat & Fis E De Giorgi, Lecce - Italy
[40] Sezione Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Lecce - Italy
[41] Karlsruhe Inst Technol, Inst Kernphys IKP, Campus North, D-76021 Karlsruhe - Germany
[42] Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Inst Fis, Rio De Janeiro, RJ - Brazil
[43] Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Lab Naz Gran Sasso, Assergi, Laquila - Italy
[44] Inst Nucl Phys PAN, Krakow - Poland
[45] Colorado State Univ, Ft Collins, CO 80523 - USA
[46] Horia Hulubei Natl Inst Phys & Nucl Engn, Bucharest 077125 - Romania
[47] Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst A 3, Aachen - Germany
[48] Univ Granada, Granada - Spain
[49] CAFPE, Granada - Spain
[50] Univ Autonoma Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas - Mexico
[51] Univ Milan, Milan - Italy
[52] Sezione Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Milan - Italy
[53] Univ Roma Tor Vergata, I-00173 Rome - Italy
[54] Sezione Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Rome - Italy
[55] Inst Space Sci, Bucharest - Romania
[56] Sezione Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Turin - Italy
[57] Univ Michoacana, Morelia, Michoacan - Mexico
[58] Univ Estadual Campinas, IFGW, Campinas, SP - Brazil
[59] Penn State Univ, University Pk, PA 16802 - USA
[60] Univ Paris 11, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Accelerateur Lineaire, F-91405 Orsay - France
[61] Case Western Reserve Univ, Cleveland, OH 44106 - USA
[62] Univ Chicago, Enrico Fermi Inst, 5640 S Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL 60637 - USA
[63] Observ Paris, CNRS, INSU, Stn Radioastron Nancay, Nancay - France
[64] Univ Nantes, CNRS, IN2P3, Ecole Mines Nantes, SUBATECH, Nantes - France
[65] Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, RA-1033 Buenos Aires, DF - Argentina
[66] Univ Buenos Aires, Dept Fis, FCEyN, Buenos Aires, DF - Argentina
[67] CONICET UBA, Inst Astron & Fis Espacio, Buenos Aires, DF - Argentina
[68] Univ Fed Fluminense, EEIMVR, Volta Redonda, RJ - Brazil
[69] Nikhef, Sci Pk, Amsterdam - Netherlands
[70] Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Fis Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP - Brazil
[71] Univ Alcala De Henares, Madrid - Spain
[72] Michigan Technol Univ, Houghton, MI 49931 - USA
[73] Univ Aquila, Dipartimento Sci Fis & Chim, I-67100 Laquila - Italy
[74] Sezione Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Laquila - Italy
[75] Univ Groningen, KVI Ctr Adv Radiat Technol, Groningen - Netherlands
[76] Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, La Plata, Buenos Aires - Argentina
[77] Univ Nacl La Plata, IFLP, RA-1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires - Argentina
[78] ASTRON, Dwingeloo - Netherlands
[79] Jozef Stefan Inst, Expt Particle Phys Dept, Ljubljana - Slovenia
[80] Univ Nova Gorica, Lab Astroparticle Phys, Nova Gorica - Slovenia
[81] CONICET UNR, Inst Fis Rosario IFIR, Rosario, Santa Fe - Argentina
[82] UNR, Fac Ciencias Bioquim & Farmaceut, Rosario, Santa Fe - Argentina
[83] UNSAM, CONICET, CNEA, Inst Tecnol Detecc Astroparticulas, Mendoza - Argentina
[84] CONICET CNEA, Univ Tecnol Nacl, Fac Reg Mendoza, Mendoza - Argentina
[85] Karlsruhe Inst Technol, Inst Prozessdatenverarbeitung & Elekt IEKP, Campus North, D-76021 Karlsruhe - Germany
[86] Univ Lodz, PL-90131 Lodz - Poland
[87] Univ Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 - USA
[88] Univ Estadual Feira de Santana, Feira De Santana - Brazil
[89] Palacky Univ, RCPTM, CR-77147 Olomouc - Czech Republic
[90] Colorado Sch Mines, Golden, CO 80401 - USA
[91] Univ New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 - USA
[92] Univ Fed ABC, Santo Andre, SP - Brazil
[93] Benemerita Univ Autonoma Puebla, Puebla - Mexico
[94] CINVESTAV, IPN, Ctr Invest & Estudios Avanzados, Mexico City 14000, DF - Mexico
[95] Louisiana State Univ, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 - USA
[96] Ctr Brasileiro Pesquisas Fis, Rio De Janeiro, RJ - Brazil
[97] Univ Fed Pelotas, Pelotas, RS - Brazil
[98] Charles Univ Prague, Fac Math & Phys, Inst Particle & Nucl Phys, Prague - Czech Republic
[99] Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Villa Martelli - Argentina
[100] CITEDEF, Ctr Invest Laseres & Aplicac, Villa Martelli - Argentina
[101] Northeastern Univ, Boston, MA 02115 - USA
[102] Inst Politecn Nacl, Unidad Profes Interdisciplinaria Ingn & Tecnol Av, Mexico City, DF - Mexico
[103] Univ Fed Bahia, Salvador, BA - Brazil
[104] Univ Nebraska, Lincoln, NE - USA
[105] Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Gran Sasso Sci Inst, Laquila - Italy
[106] Vrije Univ Brussels, Brussels - Belgium
[107] Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo INAF, Palermo - Italy
[108] Univ Sao Paulo, Escola Engn Lorena, Lorena, SP - Brazil
[109] Univ Leeds, Sch Phys & Astron, Leeds, W Yorkshire - England
Número total de Afiliações: 109
Tipo de documento: Artigo Científico
Fonte: Journal of Instrumentation; v. 11, JAN 2016.
Citações Web of Science: 5
Resumo

To exploit the full potential of radio measurements of cosmic-ray air showers at MHz frequencies, a detector timing synchronization within 1 ns is needed. Large distributed radio detector arrays such as the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) rely on timing via the Global Positioning System (GPS) for the synchronization of individual detector station clocks. Unfortunately, GPS timing is expected to have an accuracy no better than about 5 ns. In practice, in particular in AERA, the GPS clocks exhibit drifts on the order of tens of ns. We developed a technique to correct for the GPS drifts, and an independent method is used to cross-check that indeed we reach a nanosecond-scale timing accuracy by this correction. First, we operate a ``beacon transmitter{''} which emits defined sine waves detected by AERA antennas recorded within the physics data. The relative phasing of these sine waves can be used to correct for GPS clock drifts. In addition to this, we observe radio pulses emitted by commercial airplanes, the position of which we determine in real time from Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcasts intercepted with a software-defined radio. From the known source location and the measured arrival times of the pulses we determine relative timing offsets between radio detector stations. We demonstrate with a combined analysis that the two methods give a consistent timing calibration with an accuracy of 2 ns or better. Consequently, the beacon method alone can be used in the future to continuously determine and correct for GPS clock drifts in each individual event measured by AERA. (AU)

Processo FAPESP: 10/07359-6 - Estudo dos raios cósmicos de mais altas energias com o Observatório Pierre Auger
Beneficiário:Carola Dobrigkeit Chinellato
Linha de fomento: Auxílio à Pesquisa - Temático
Processo FAPESP: 99/05404-3 - Observatório Pierre Auger
Beneficiário:Carlos Ourivio Escobar
Linha de fomento: Auxílio à Pesquisa - Temático