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Genesis of the largest Amazonian wetland in northern Brazil inferred by morphology and gravity anomalies

Texto completo
Rossetti, Dilce de Fatima [1] ; Molina, Eder Cassola [2] ; Cremon, Edipo Henrique [1, 3]
Número total de Autores: 3
Afiliação do(s) autor(es):
[1] INPE, BR-12245970 Sao Jose Dos Campos, SP - Brazil
[2] Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, SP - Brazil
[3] IFG, BR-74055110 Goiania, Go - Brazil
Número total de Afiliações: 3
Tipo de documento: Artigo Científico
Fonte: Journal of South American Earth Sciences; v. 69, p. 1-10, AUG 2016.
Citações Web of Science: 6

The Pantanal Setentrional (PS) is the second largest wetland in Brazil, occurring in a region of northern Amazonia previously regarded as part of the intracratonic Softiies Basin. However, while Paleozoic to Neogene strata are recorded in this basin, the PS constitutes a broad region with an expressive record of only Late Pleistocene and Holocene deposits. The hypothesis investigated in the present work is if these younger deposits were formed within a sedimentary basin having a geological history separated from the Softiies Basin. Due to the location in a remote region of low accessibility, the sedimentary fill of the PS wetland remains largely unknown in subsurface. In the present work, we combine geomorphological and gravity data acquired on a global basis by several satellite gravity missions to approach the geological context of this region. The results revealed a wetland characterized in surface by a low-lying terrain with wedge shape and concave-up geometry that is in sharp contact with highland areas of Precambrian rocks of the Guiana Shield. Such contact is defined by a series of mainly NE- or NW-trending straight lineaments that eventually extend into both the Guiana Shield and the PS wetland. Also of relevance is that a great part of the PS wetland sedimentary cover consists of dominantly sandy deposits preserved as residual paleo-landforms with triangular shapes previously related to megafan depositional systems. These are distributed radially at the northern margin of the PS, with axis toward basement rocks and fringes toward the wetland's center, the latter containing the largest megafan landform. The analysis of gravity anomaly data revealed a main NNE-trending chain 500 km in length defined by high gravity values (i.e., up to 60 mGal); these are bounded by negative anomalies as low as 90 mGal. The chain with positive gravity anomaly marks the center of a subsiding area having a geological evolution that differs from the adjacent intracratonic Softiies Basin. Deep rifting associated with the rise of high-density material from the mantle in replacement of low density continental crust is hypothesized as the most likely load-driving mechanism responsible for the subsidence of the PS sedimentary basin. Alternatively, this might be a shallow basin formed during the Late Quaternary due to mild subsidence of a high-density basement. This process would have been caused by tectonic reactivations of NE-trending strike-slip faults along a zone of low elastic thickness of the lithosphere that characterizes this region of South American platform. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. (AU)

Processo FAPESP: 13/50475-5 - Mapping Amazonian biodiversity at multiple scales by integrating geology and ecology
Beneficiário:Dilce de Fátima Rossetti
Linha de fomento: Auxílio à Pesquisa - Regular