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(Referência obtida automaticamente do Web of Science, por meio da informação sobre o financiamento pela FAPESP e o número do processo correspondente, incluída na publicação pelos autores.)

Vemurafenib resistance increases melanoma invasiveness and modulates the tumor microenvironment by MMP-2 upregulation

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Sandri, Silvana ; Faiao-Flores, Fernanda ; Tiago, Manoela ; Pennacchi, Paula Comune ; Massaro, Renato Ramos ; Alves-Fernandes, Debora Kristina ; Berardinelli, Gustavo Noriz ; Evangelista, Adriane Feijo ; Vazquez, Vinicius de Lima ; Reis, Rui Manuel ; Maria-Engler, Silvya Suchi
Número total de Autores: 11
Tipo de documento: Artigo Científico
Fonte: PHARMACOLOGICAL RESEARCH; v. 111, p. 523-533, SEP 2016.
Citações Web of Science: 22
Resumo

The BRAF(V600E) mutation confers constitutive kinase activity and accounts for >90% of BRAF mutations in melanoma. This genetic alteration is a current therapeutic target; however, the antitumorigenic effects of the BRAF(V600E) inhibitor vemurafenib are short-lived and the majority of patients present tumor relapse in a short period after treatment. Characterization of vemurafenib resistance has been essential to the efficacy of next generation therapeutic strategies. Herein, we found that acute BRAF inhibition induced a decrease in active MMP-2, MT1-MMP and MMP-9, but did not modulate the metalloproteinase inhibitors TIMP-2 or RECK in naive melanoma cells. In vemurafenib-resistant melanoma cells, we observed a lower growth rate and an increase in EGFR phosphorylation followed by the recovery of active MMP-2 expression, a mediator of cancer metastasis. Furthermore, we found a different profile of MMP inhibitor expression, characterized by TIMP-2 downregulation and RECK upregulation. In a 3D spheroid model, the invasion index of vemurafenib-resistant melanoma cells was more evident than in its non-resistant counterpart. We confirmed this pattern in a matrigel invasion assay and demonstrated that use of a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor reduced the invasion of vemurafenib resistant melanoma cells but not drug naive cells. Moreover, we did not observe a delimited group of cells invading the dermis in vemurafenib-resistant melanoma cells present in a reconstructed skin model. The same MMP-2 and RECK upregulation profile was found in this 3D skin model containing vemurafenib-resistant melanoma cells. Acute vemurafenib treatment induces the disorganization of collagen fibers and consequently, extracellular matrix remodeling, with this pattern observed even after the acquisition of resistance. Altogether, our data suggest that resistance to vemurafenib induces significant changes in the tumor microenvironment mainly by MMP-2 upregulation, with a corresponding increase in cell invasiveness. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. (AU)

Processo FAPESP: 14/24400-0 - Modelos in vitro para estudos pré-clínicos de melanoma quimioresistente
Beneficiário:Silvya Stuchi Maria-Engler
Linha de fomento: Auxílio à Pesquisa - Regular
Processo FAPESP: 13/05172-4 - Impacto das proteínas da transição epitélio-mesênquima em melanoma quimioresistente ao vemurabenibe
Beneficiário:Fernanda Faião Flores
Linha de fomento: Bolsas no Brasil - Pós-Doutorado