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(Referência obtida automaticamente do Web of Science, por meio da informação sobre o financiamento pela FAPESP e o número do processo correspondente, incluída na publicação pelos autores.)

Targeting the hedgehog transcription factors GLI1 and GLI2 restores sensitivity to vemurafenib-resistant human melanoma cells

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Faiao-Flores, F. ; Alves-Fernandes, D. K. ; Pennacchi, P. C. ; Sandri, S. ; Vicente, A. L. S. A. ; Scapulatempo-Neto, C. ; Vazquez, V. L. ; Reis, R. M. ; Chauhan, J. ; Goding, C. R. ; Smalley, K. S. ; Maria-Engler, S. S.
Número total de Autores: 12
Tipo de documento: Artigo Científico
Fonte: Oncogene; v. 36, n. 13, p. 1849-1861, MAR 30 2017.
Citações Web of Science: 22
Resumo

BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi) therapy for melanoma patients harboring the V600E mutation is initially highly effective, but almost all patients relapse within a few months. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underpinning BRAFi-based therapy is therefore an important issue. Here we identified a previously unsuspected mechanism of BRAFi resistance driven by elevated Hedgehog (Hh) pathway activation that is observed in a cohort of melanoma patients after vemurafenib treatment. Specifically, we demonstrate that melanoma cell lines, with acquired in vitro-induced vemurafenib resistance, show increased levels of glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 and 2 (GLI1/GLI2) compared with naive cells. We also observed these findings in clinical melanoma specimens. Moreover, the increased expression of the transcription factors GLI1/GLI2 was independent of canonical Hh signaling and was instead correlated with the noncanonical Hh pathway, involving TGF beta/SMAD (transforming growth factor-beta/Sma- and Mad-related family) signaling. Knockdown of GLI1 and GLI2 restored sensitivity to vemurafenib-resistant cells, an effect associated with both growth arrest and senescence. Treatment of vemurafenib-resistant cells with the GLI1/GLI2 inhibitor Gant61 led to decreased invasion of the melanoma cells in a three-dimensional skin reconstruct model and was associated with a decrease in metalloproteinase (MMP2/MMP9) expression and microphthalmia transcription factor upregulation. Gant61 monotherapy did not alter the drug sensitivity of naive cells, but could reverse the resistance of melanoma cells chronically treated with vemurafenib. We further noted that alternating dosing schedules of Gant61 and vemurafenib prevented the onset of BRAFi resistance, suggesting that this could be a potential therapeutic strategy for the prevention of therapeutic escape. Our results suggest that targeting the Hh pathway in BRAFi-resistant melanoma may represent a viable therapeutic strategy to restore vemurafenib sensitivity, reducing or even inhibiting the acquired chemoresistance in melanoma patients. (AU)

Processo FAPESP: 14/24400-0 - Modelos in vitro para estudos pré-clínicos de melanoma quimioresistente
Beneficiário:Silvya Stuchi Maria-Engler
Linha de fomento: Auxílio à Pesquisa - Regular
Processo FAPESP: 12/04194-1 - Avaliação do papel biológico e clínico de alterações nas vias moleculares RAS-MAPK e PI3K-Akt , em melanomas cutâneos e de mucosa em população brasileira e comparação com a população estadunidense
Beneficiário:Vinicius de Lima Vazquez
Linha de fomento: Auxílio à Pesquisa - Regular
Processo FAPESP: 13/05172-4 - Impacto das proteínas da transição epitélio-mesênquima em melanoma quimioresistente ao vemurabenibe
Beneficiário:Fernanda Faião Flores
Linha de fomento: Bolsas no Brasil - Pós-Doutorado
Processo FAPESP: 15/10821-7 - Efeito da inibição de Hsp90 nas vias de escape terapêutico de melanoma BRAF-mutado
Beneficiário:Fernanda Faião Flores
Linha de fomento: Bolsas no Exterior - Estágio de Pesquisa - Pós-Doutorado