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Measurement of the average shape of longitudinal profiles of cosmic-ray air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

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Autor(es):
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Aab, A. [1] ; Abreu, P. [2, 3] ; Aglietta, M. [4, 5] ; Albuquerque, I. F. M. [6] ; Albury, J. M. [7] ; Allekotte, I. [8, 9] ; Almela, A. [10, 11] ; Alvarez Castillo, J. [12] ; Alvarez-Muniz, J. [13] ; Anastasi, G. A. [14, 15] ; Anchordoqui, L. [16] ; Andrada, B. [11] ; Andringa, S. [2, 3] ; Aramo, C. [17] ; Asorey, H. [8, 18, 9] ; Assis, P. [2, 3] ; Avila, G. [19, 20] ; Badescu, A. M. [21] ; Bakalova, A. [22] ; Balaceanu, A. [23] ; Barbato, F. [17, 24] ; Luz, R. J. Barreira [2, 3] ; Baur, S. [25] ; Becker, K. H. [26] ; Bellido, J. A. [7] ; Berat, C. [27] ; Bertaina, M. E. [5, 28] ; Bertou, X. [8, 9] ; Biermann, L. [29] ; Biteau, J. [30] ; Blaess, S. G. [7] ; Blanco, A. [2, 3] ; Blazek, J. [22] ; Bleve, C. [31, 32] ; Bohacova, M. [22] ; Boncioli, D. [14, 15] ; Bonifazi, C. [33] ; Borodai, N. [34] ; Botti, A. M. [25, 11] ; Brack, J. [35] ; Bretz, T. [36] ; Bridgeman, A. [37] ; Briechle, F. L. [36] ; Buchholz, P. [38] ; Bueno, A. [39, 40] ; Buitink, S. [41] ; Buscemi, M. [42, 43] ; Caballero-Mora, K. S. [44] ; Caccianiga, L. [45] ; Calcagni, L. [46] ; Cancio, A. [10, 11] ; Canfora, F. [1, 47] ; Carceller, J. M. [39, 40] ; Caruso, R. [42, 43] ; Castellina, A. [4, 5] ; Catalani, F. [48] ; Cataldi, G. [32] ; Cazon, L. [2, 3] ; Chinellato, J. A. [49] ; Chudoba, J. [22] ; Chytka, L. [50] ; Clay, R. W. [7] ; Cobos Cerutti, A. C. [51, 52] ; Colalillo, R. [17, 24] ; Coleman, A. [53] ; Coluccia, M. R. [31, 32] ; Conceicao, R. [2, 3] ; Condorelli, A. [14, 15] ; Consolati, G. [54, 55] ; Contreras, F. [19, 20] ; Cooper, M. J. [7] ; Coutu, S. [53] ; Covault, C. E. ; Daniel, B. [49] ; Dasso, S. [56, 57, 58, 59] ; Daumiller, K. [25] ; Dawson, B. R. [7] ; Day, J. A. [7] ; de Almeida, R. M. [60] ; de Jong, S. J. [1, 47] ; De Mauro, G. [1, 47] ; de Mello Neto, J. R. T. [33, 61] ; De Mitri, I. [14, 15] ; de Oliveira, J. [60] ; de Oliveira Salles, F. O. [62] ; de Souza, V. [63, 3] ; Debatin, J. [37] ; Deligny, O. [30] ; Dhital, N. [34] ; Diaz Castro, M. L. [49] ; Diogo, F. [2, 3] ; Dobrigkeit, C. [49] ; D'Olivo, J. C. [12] ; Dorosti, Q. [38] ; dos Anjos, R. C. [64] ; Dova, M. T. [46] ; Dundovic, A. [65] ; Ebr, J. [22] ; Engel, R. [25, 37] ; Erdmann, M. [36] ; Escobar, C. O. [66] ; Etchegoyen, A. [10, 11] ; Falcke, H. [1, 47, 67] ; Farmer, J. [68] ; Farrar, G. [69] ; Fauth, A. C. [49] ; Fazzini, N. [66] ; Feldbusch, F. [70] ; Fenu, F. [5, 28] ; Ferreyro, L. P. [11] ; Figueira, J. M. [11] ; Filipcic, A. [71, 72] ; Freire, M. M. [73, 74] ; Fujii, T. [68, 75] ; Fuster, A. [10, 11] ; Garcia, B. [51, 52] ; Gemmeke, H. [70] ; Gherghel-Lascu, A. [23] ; Ghia, P. L. [30] ; Giaccari, U. [62] ; Giammarchi, M. [54] ; Giller, M. [76] ; Glas, D. [77] ; Glombitza, J. [36] ; Golup, G. [8, 9] ; Gomez Berisso, M. [8, 9] ; Gomez Vitale, P. F. [19, 20] ; Gonzalez, N. [11] ; Goos, I. [25, 8, 9] ; Gora, D. [34] ; Gorgi, A. [4, 5] ; Gottowik, M. [26] ; Grubb, T. D. [7] ; Guarino, F. [17, 24] ; Guedes, G. P. [78] ; Guido, E. [5, 28] ; Halliday, R. ; Hampel, M. R. [11] ; Hansen, P. [46] ; Harari, D. [8, 9] ; Harrison, T. A. [7] ; Harvey, V. M. [7] ; Haungs, A. [25] ; Hebbeker, T. [36] ; Heck, D. [25] ; Heimann, P. [38] ; Hill, G. C. [7] ; Hojvat, C. [66] ; Holt, E. M. [37, 11] ; Homola, P. [34] ; Hoerandel, J. R. [1, 47] ; Horvath, P. [50] ; Hrabovsky, M. [50] ; Huege, T. [25, 41] ; Hulsman, J. [25, 11] ; Insolia, A. [42, 43] ; Isar, P. G. [79] ; Jandt, I. [26] ; Johnsen, J. A. [80] ; Josebachuili, M. [11] ; Jurysek, J. [22] ; Kaeaepae, A. [26] ; Kampert, K. H. [26] ; Keilhauer, B. [25] ; Kemmerich, N. [6] ; Kemp, J. [36] ; Klages, H. O. [25] ; Kleifges, M. [70] ; Kleinfeller, J. [19] ; Krause, R. [36] ; Kuempel, D. [26] ; Kukec Mezek, G. [72] ; Kuotb Awad, A. [37] ; Lago, B. L. [81] ; LaHurd, D. ; Lang, R. G. [63] ; Legumina, R. [76] ; de Oliveira, M. A. Leigui [82] ; Lenok, V. [25, 3] ; Letessier-Selvon, A. [83, 84] ; Lhenry-Yvon, I. [30] ; Lippmann, O. C. [62] ; Lo Presti, D. [42, 43] ; Lopes, L. [2, 3] ; Lopez, R. [85] ; Lopez Casado, A. [13] ; Lorek, R. ; Luce, Q. [30] ; Lucero, A. [11] ; Malacari, M. [68] ; Mancarella, G. [31, 32] ; Mandat, D. [22] ; Manning, B. C. [7] ; Mantsch, P. [66] ; Mariazzi, A. G. [46] ; Maris, I. C. [86] ; Marsella, G. [31, 32] ; Martello, D. [31, 32] ; Martinez, H. [87] ; Martinez Bravo, O. [85] ; Mastrodicasa, M. [14, 88] ; Mathes, H. J. [25] ; Mathys, S. [26] ; Matthews, J. [89] ; Matthiae, G. [90, 91] ; Mayotte, E. [26] ; Mazur, P. O. [66] ; Medina-Tanco, G. [12] ; Melo, D. [11] ; Menshikov, A. [70] ; Merenda, K. -D. [80] ; Michal, S. [50] ; Micheletti, M. I. [73, 74] ; Middendorf, L. [36] ; Miramonti, L. [45, 54] ; Mitrica, B. [23] ; Mockler, D. [37] ; Mollerach, S. [8, 9] ; Montanet, F. [27] ; Morello, C. [4, 5] ; Morlino, G. [14, 15] ; Mostafa, M. [53] ; Mueller, A. L. [25, 11] ; Muller, M. A. [49, 92] ; Mueller, S. [37, 11] ; Mussa, R. [5] ; Nellen, L. [12] ; Nguyen, P. H. [7] ; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M. [23] ; Niechciol, M. [38] ; Nitz, D. [93, 94] ; Nosek, D. [95] ; Novotny, V. [95] ; Nozka, L. [50] ; Nucita, A. [31, 32] ; Nunez, L. A. [18] ; Olinto, A. [68] ; Palatka, M. [22] ; Pallotta, J. [96, 97] ; Panetta, M. P. [31, 32] ; Papenbreer, P. [26] ; Parente, G. [13] ; Parra, A. [85] ; Pech, M. [22] ; Pedreira, F. [13] ; Pekala, J. [34] ; Pelayo, R. [98] ; Pena-Rodriguez, J. [18] ; Pereira, L. A. S. [49] ; Perlin, M. [11] ; Perrone, L. [31, 32] ; Peters, C. [36] ; Petrera, S. [14, 15] ; Phuntsok, J. [53] ; Pierog, T. [25] ; Pimenta, M. [2, 3] ; Pirronello, V. [42, 43] ; Platino, M. [11] ; Poh, J. [68] ; Pont, B. [1] ; Porowski, C. [34] ; Prado, R. R. [63] ; Privitera, P. [68] ; Prouza, M. [22] ; Puyleart, A. [93] ; Querchfeld, S. [26] ; Quinn, S. ; Ramos-Pollan, R. [18] ; Rautenberg, J. [26] ; Ravignani, D. [11] ; Reininghaus, M. [25] ; Ridky, J. [22] ; Riehn, F. [2, 3] ; Risse, M. [38] ; Ristori, P. [96, 97] ; Rizi, V. [14, 88] ; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W. [25] ; Rojo, J. Rodriguez [19] ; Roncoroni, M. J. [11] ; Roth, M. [25] ; Roulet, E. [8, 9] ; Rovero, A. C. [58] ; Ruehl, P. [38] ; Saffi, S. J. [7] ; Saftoiu, A. [23] ; Salamida, F. [14, 88] ; Salazar, H. [85] ; Saleh, A. [72] ; Salina, G. [91] ; Sanabria Gomez, J. D. [91] ; Sanchez, F. [11] ; Santos, E. M. [6] ; Santos, E. [22] ; Sarazin, F. [80] ; Sarmento, R. [2, 3] ; Sarmiento-Cano, C. [11] ; Sato, R. [19] ; Savina, P. [31, 32] ; Schauer, M. [26] ; Scherini, V. [32] ; Schieler, H. [25] ; Schimassek, M. [37] ; Schimp, M. [26] ; Schlueter, F. [25] ; Schmidt, D. [37] ; Scholten, O. [99, 41] ; Schovanek, P. [22] ; Schroeder, F. G. [25, 100] ; Schroeder, S. [26] ; Schumacher, J. [36] ; Sciutto, S. J. [46] ; Scornavacche, M. [11] ; Shellard, R. C. [62] ; Sigl, G. [65] ; Silli, G. [25, 11] ; Sima, O. [101, 23] ; Smida, R. [68] ; Snow, G. R. [102] ; Sommers, P. [53] ; Soriano, J. F. [16] ; Souchard, J. [27] ; Squartini, R. [19] ; Stanca, D. [23] ; Stanic, S. [72] ; Stasielak, J. [34] ; Stassi, P. [27] ; Stolpovskiy, M. [27] ; Streich, A. [37] ; Suarez, F. [10, 11] ; Suarez-Duran, M. [18] ; Sudholz, T. [7] ; Suomijaervi, T. [30] ; Supanitsky, A. D. [11] ; Supik, J. [50] ; Szadkowski, Z. [77] ; Taboada, A. [25] ; Taborda, O. A. [8, 9] ; Tapia, A. [103] ; Timmermans, C. [1, 47] ; Todero Peixoto, C. J. [48] ; Tome, B. [2, 3] ; Torralba Elipe, G. [13] ; Travnicek, P. [22] ; Trini, M. [72] ; Tueros, M. [46] ; Ulrich, R. [25] ; Unger, M. [25] ; Urban, M. [36] ; Valdes Galicia, J. F. [12] ; Valino, I. [14, 15] ; Valore, L. [17, 24] ; van Bodegom, P. [7] ; van den Berg, A. M. [99] ; van Vliet, A. [1] ; Varela, E. [85] ; Vargas Cardenas, B. [12] ; Vazquez, R. A. [13] ; Veberic, D. [25] ; Ventura, C. [61] ; Vergara Quispe, I. D. [46] ; Verzi, V. [91] ; Vicha, J. [22] ; Villasenor, L. [85] ; Vink, J. [104] ; Vorobiov, S. [72] ; Wahlberg, H. [46] ; Watson, A. A. [105] ; Weber, M. [70] ; Weindl, A. [25] ; Wiedenski, M. [77] ; Wiencke, L. [80] ; Wilczynski, H. [34] ; Winchen, T. [86] ; Wirtz, M. [36] ; Wittkowski, D. [26] ; Wundheiler, B. [11] ; Yang, L. [72] ; Yushkov, A. [22] ; Zas, E. [13] ; Zavrtanik, D. [71, 72] ; Zavrtanik, M. [71, 72] ; Zehrer, L. [72] ; Zepeda, A. [87] ; Zimmermann, B. [25] ; Ziolkowski, M. [38] ; Zong, Z. [30] ; Zuccarello, F. [43] ; Collaboration, Pierre Auger
Número total de Autores: 388
Afiliação do(s) autor(es):
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[1] Radboud Univ Nijmegen, IMAPP, Nijmegen - Netherlands
[2] Univ Lisbon, Lab Instrumentacao & Fis Expt Particulas LIP, Lisbon - Portugal
[3] Univ Lisbon, IST, Lisbon - Portugal
[4] Osservatorio Astrofis Torino INAF, Turin - Italy
[5] INFN, Sez Torino, Turin - Italy
[6] Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Fis, Sao Paulo, SP - Brazil
[7] Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA - Australia
[8] Inst Balseiro, CNEA UNCuyo CONICET, San Carlos De Bariloche, Rio Negro - Argentina
[9] Ctr Atom Bariloche, CNEA UNCuyo CONICET, San Carlos De Bariloche, Rio Negro - Argentina
[10] Univ Tecnol Nacl, Fac Reg Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, DF - Argentina
[11] UNSAM, Inst Tecnol Detecc & Astroparticulas, CONICET, CNEA, Buenos Aires, DF - Argentina
[12] Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Mexico City, DF - Mexico
[13] Univ Santiago de Compostela, IGFAE, Santiago De Compostela - Spain
[14] INFN, Lab Nazl Gran Sasso, Laquila - Italy
[15] Gran Sasso Sci Inst, Laquila - Italy
[16] City Univ New York, Dept Phys & Astron, Lehman Coll, Bronx, NY - USA
[17] INFN, Sez Napoli, Naples - Italy
[18] Univ Ind Santander, Bucaramanga - Colombia
[19] Observ Pierre Auger, Malargue - Argentina
[20] Comis Nacl Energia Atom, Malargue - Argentina
[21] Univ Politehn Bucuresti, Bucharest - Romania
[22] Czech Acad Sci, Inst Phys, Prague - Czech Republic
[23] Horia Hulubei Natl Inst Phys & Nucl Engn, Bucharest - Romania
[24] Univ Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento Fis Ettore Pancini, Naples - Italy
[25] Karlsruhe Inst Technol, Inst Kernphys, Karlsruhe - Germany
[26] Berg Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, Wuppertal - Germany
[27] Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble Inst Engn, LPSC IN2P3, F-38000 Grenoble - France
[28] Univ Torino, Dipartimento Fis, Turin - Italy
[29] Max Planck Inst, Radioastronomie, Bonn - Germany
[30] Univ Paris Sud, Inst Phys Nucl dOrsay IPNO, Univ Paris Saclay, CNRS IN2P3, Orsay - France
[31] Univ Salento, Dipartimento Matemat & Fis E De Giorgi, Lecce - Italy
[32] INFN, Sez Lecce, Lecce - Italy
[33] Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Inst Fis, Rio De Janeiro, RJ - Brazil
[34] Inst Nucl Phys PAN, Krakow - Poland
[35] Colorado State Univ, Ft Collins, CO 80523 - USA
[36] Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3 A, Aachen - Germany
[37] Karlsruhe Inst Technol, Inst Expt Particle Phys ETP, Karlsruhe - Germany
[38] Univ Siegen, Fachbereich 7 Phys, Experimentelle Teilchenphys, Siegen - Germany
[39] Univ Granada, Granada - Spain
[40] CAFPE, Granada - Spain
[41] Vrije Univ Brussels, Brussels - Belgium
[42] Univ Catania, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Catania - Italy
[43] INFN, Sez Catania, Catania - Italy
[44] Univ Autonoma Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas - Mexico
[45] Univ Milan, Dipartimento Fis, Milan - Italy
[46] Univ Nacl La Plata, IFLP, Buenos Aires, DF - Argentina
[47] Nikhef, Sci Pk, Amsterdam - Netherlands
[48] Univ Sao Paulo, Escola Engn Lorena, Lorena, SP - Brazil
[49] Univ Estadual Campinas, IFGW, Campinas, SP - Brazil
[50] Palacky Univ, RCPTM, Olomouc - Czech Republic
[51] UNSAM, CONICET, CNEA, Inst Tecnol Detecc & Astroparticulas, Mendoza - Argentina
[52] Univ Tecnol Nacl, Fac Reg Mendoza, CONICET, CNEA, Mendoza - Argentina
[53] Penn State Univ, University Pk, PA 16802 - USA
[54] INFN, Sez Milano, Milan - Italy
[55] Politecn Milan, Dipartimento Sci & Tecnol Aerosp, Milan - Italy
[56] Univ Buenos Aires, Dept Fis, FCEyN, Buenos Aires, DF - Argentina
[57] Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Buenos Aires, DF - Argentina
[58] UBA, IAFE, CONICET, Buenos Aires, DF - Argentina
[59] Univ Buenos Aires, Dept Ciencias Atmosfera & Oceanos, , FCEyN, Buenos Aires, DF - Argentina
[60] Univ Fed Fluminense, EEIMVR, Volta Redonda, RJ - Brazil
[61] Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro UFRJ, Observ Valongo, Rio De Janeiro, RJ - Brazil
[62] Ctr Brasileiro Pesquisas Fis, Rio De Janeiro, RJ - Brazil
[63] Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Fis Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP - Brazil
[64] Univ Fed Parana, Setor Palotina, Palotina - Brazil
[65] Univ Hamburg, Inst Theoret Phys 2, Hamburg - Germany
[66] Fermilab Natl Accelerator Lab, POB 500, Batavia, IL 60510 - USA
[67] Stichting Astronomisch Onderzoek Nederland ASTRON, Dwingeloo - Netherlands
[68] Univ Chicago, Enrico Fermi Inst, Chicago, IL - USA
[69] New York Univ, New York, NY - USA
[70] Karlsruhe Inst Technol, Inst Prozessdatenverarbeitung & Elektronik, Karlsruhe - Germany
[71] J Stefan Inst, Expt Particle Phys Dept, Ljubljana - Slovenia
[72] Univ Nova Gorica, Ctr Astrophys & Cosmol CAC, Nova Gorica - Slovenia
[73] UNR, Fac Ciencias Bioquim & Farmaceut, Rosario, Santa Fe - Argentina
[74] Inst Fis Rosario IFIR, UNR, CONICET, Rosario, Santa Fe - Argentina
[75] Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Tokyo - Japan
[76] Univ Lodz, Fac Astrophys, Lodz - Poland
[77] Univ Lodz, Fac High Energy Astrophys, Lodz - Poland
[78] Univ Estadual Feira de Santana, Feira De Santana - Brazil
[79] Inst Space Sci, Bucharest - Romania
[80] Case Western Reserve Univ, Cleveland, OH 44106 - USA
[81] Ctr Fed Educ Tecnol Celso Suckow Fonseca, Nova Friburgo - Brazil
[82] Univ Fed ABC, Santo Andre, SP - Brazil
[83] Univ Paris 07, Paris - France
[84] Univ Paris 06, LPNHE, CNRS, IN2P3, Paris - France
[85] Benemerita Univ Autonoma Puebla, Puebla - Mexico
[86] Univ Libre Bruxelles, Brussels - Belgium
[87] CINVESTAV, IPN, Ctr Invest & Estudios Avanzados, Mexico City, DF - Mexico
[88] Univ Aquila, Dipartimento Sci Fis & Chim, Laquila - Italy
[89] Louisiana State Univ, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 - USA
[90] Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento Fis, Rome - Italy
[91] INFN, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, Rome - Italy
[92] Univ Fed Alfenas, Pogos De Caldas - Brazil
[93] Michigan Technol Univ, Houghton, MI 49931 - USA
[94] Karlsruhe Inst Technol, Karlsruhe - Germany
[95] Charles Univ Prague, Inst Particle & Nucl Phys, Fac Math & Phys, Prague - Czech Republic
[96] Ctr Invest Laseres & Aplicac, CITEDEF, Villa Martelli - Argentina
[97] Ctr Invest Laseres & Aplicac, CONICET, Villa Martelli - Argentina
[98] IPN, UPIITA, Mexico City, DF - Mexico
[99] Univ Groningen, Adv Radiat Technol Ctr, KVI, Groningen - Netherlands
[100] Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE - USA
[101] Univ Bucharest, Dept Phys, Bucharest - Romania
[102] Univ Nebraska, Lincoln, NE - USA
[103] Univ Medellin, Medellin - Colombia
[104] Univ Amsterdam, Fac Sci, Amsterdam - Netherlands
[105] Univ Leeds, Sch Phys & Astron, Leeds, W Yorkshire - England
Número total de Afiliações: 105
Tipo de documento: Artigo Científico
Fonte: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics; n. 3 MAR 2019.
Citações Web of Science: 0
Resumo

The profile of the longitudinal development of showers produced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays carries information related to the interaction properties of the primary particles with atmospheric nuclei. In this work, we present the first measurement of the average shower pro file in traversed atmospheric depth at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The shapes of profiles are well reproduced by the Gaisser-Hillas parametrization within the range studied, for E > 10(17.8) eV. A detailed analysis of the systematic uncertainties is performed using ten years of data and a full detector simulation. The average shape is quantified using two variables related to the width and asymmetry of the profile, and the results are compared with predictions of hadronic interaction models for different primary particles. (AU)

Processo FAPESP: 10/07359-6 - Estudo dos raios cósmicos de mais altas energias com o Observatório Pierre Auger
Beneficiário:Carola Dobrigkeit Chinellato
Linha de fomento: Auxílio à Pesquisa - Temático
Processo FAPESP: 99/05404-3 - Observatório Pierre Auger
Beneficiário:Carlos Ourivio Escobar
Linha de fomento: Auxílio à Pesquisa - Temático