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Hidden in the DNA: How multiple historical processes and natural history traits shaped patterns of cryptic diversity in an Amazon leaf-litter lizard Loxopholis osvaldoi (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae)

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Marques-Souza, Sergio [1] ; Machado Pellegrino, Katia C. [2] ; Brunes, Tuliana Oliveira [1] ; Carnaval, Ana Carolina [3, 4] ; Damasceno, Roberta Pacheco [1] ; de Oliveira Borges, Manoela Lima [5] ; Gallardo, Carlos Candia [6] ; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut [1]
Número total de Autores: 8
Afiliação do(s) autor(es):
[1] Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Biociencias, Dept Zool, Lab Herpetol, Rua Matao, Travessa 14, 101, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, SP - Brazil
[2] Univ Fed Sao Paulo, Dept Ecol & Biol Evolut, Lab Genet Evolut, Sao Paulo, SP - Brazil
[3] CUNY, Grad Ctr, New York, NY - USA
[4] CUNY City Coll, Biol, New York, NY 10031 - USA
[5] Inst Nacl de Pesquisas da Amazonia, PDBFF, Manaus, Amazonas - Brazil
[6] Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Biociencias, Dept Fisiol, Lab Ecofisiol & Fisiol Evolut, Sao Paulo, SP - Brazil
Número total de Afiliações: 6
Tipo de documento: Artigo Científico
Fonte: Journal of Biogeography; v. 47, n. 2 DEC 2019.
Citações Web of Science: 0

Aim To investigate the cryptic diversity and diversification timing in the putatively low-dispersal Amazonian leaf-litter lizard Loxopholis osvaldoi, and to ask how geography (rivers, isolation by distance, IBD), ecological drivers (isolation by environment, IBE) and historical factors (climatic refugia) explain intraspecific genetic variation. Location Central Amazonia, Brazil. Taxon Squamata; Gymnophthalmidae; Loxopholis osvaldoi. Methods We sequenced two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers in 157 individuals. Phylogeographic structure and the occurrence of independent evolving lineages where explored through phylogenetic and coalescent analyses. A species tree and divergence dates of lineages were inferred with {*}BEAST, employing multiple DNA substitution rates. The potential genetic impacts of geographical distance among localities, the environment and the position of localities in relation to main rivers were tested by redundancy analysis (RDA). Results We detected 11 independently evolving and largely divergent intraspecific lineages. Lineage distribution patterns are complex and do not match any conspicuous barrier to gene flow, except for the Amazon River. Most lineages appear to have originated in the lower Miocene and Pliocene, in disagreement with the Pleistocene refuge hypothesis. IBD, IBE and rivers appear to have acted in concert establishing and maintaining genetic structure. However, when controlling for other explanatory variables, IBD explains significantly more variation than rivers, IBE or historical factors. Main Conclusions Our results strongly suggest that L. osvaldoi is a species complex. Future taxonomic work should use an integrative approach to explore whether morphological variation is present and congruent with the genetic data. While the use of a sensitive dating analysis allowed us to better describe the diversification history of L. osvaldoi, the lack of a spatial model of Neogene river dynamics prevents the test of specific, more informative river barrier hypotheses. The data suggest that nonlinear correlation analyses (e.g. RDA) should be preferred to detect factors that affect phylogeographic patterns in the Amazon, instead of linear multiple regressions (e.g. Mantel tests). Given the high level of cryptic diversity detected within this and other Amazonian species, we caution against hypothesis tests based solely on the distribution of nominal taxa, which can provide a rather incomplete view of the processes behind Amazonian diversity. (AU)

Processo FAPESP: 17/08357-6 - Padrões de Endemismo Filogenético e Filogeografia Comparada da Herpetofauna da Amazônia Brasileira
Beneficiário:Sérgio Marques de Souza
Modalidade de apoio: Bolsas no Brasil - Pós-Doutorado
Processo FAPESP: 11/50146-6 - Filogeografia comparada, filogenia, modelagem paleoclimática e taxonomia de répteis e anfíbios neotropicais
Beneficiário:Miguel Trefaut Urbano Rodrigues
Modalidade de apoio: Auxílio à Pesquisa - Programa BIOTA - Temático
Processo FAPESP: 12/10163-1 - Filogenia e sistemática dos lagartos do gênero Leposoma gr. parietale (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae), com base em caracteres morfológicos e moleculares
Beneficiário:Sérgio Marques de Souza
Modalidade de apoio: Bolsas no Brasil - Doutorado
Processo FAPESP: 13/22477-3 - Hibridização e mecanismos de isolamento reprodutivo de lagartos da Mata Atlântica
Beneficiário:Roberta Pacheco Damasceno
Modalidade de apoio: Bolsas no Brasil - Pós-Doutorado