Busca avançada
Ano de início
Entree
(Referência obtida automaticamente do Web of Science, por meio da informação sobre o financiamento pela FAPESP e o número do processo correspondente, incluída na publicação pelos autores.)

Pharmacodynamic evaluation of commonly prescribed oral antibiotics against respiratory bacterial pathogens

Texto completo
Autor(es):
Kiffer, Carlos R. V. [1] ; Pignatari, Antonio C. C. [1]
Número total de Autores: 2
Afiliação do(s) autor(es):
[1] Univ Fed Sao Paulo, Lab Especial Microbiol Clin, Dept Infect Dis, Sao Paulo - Brazil
Número total de Afiliações: 1
Tipo de documento: Artigo Científico
Fonte: BMC INFECTIOUS DISEASES; v. 11, OCT 25 2011.
Citações Web of Science: 7
Resumo

Background: Upper and lower respiratory tract infections (RTIs) account for a substantial portion of outpatient antibiotic utilization. However, the pharmacodynamic activity of commonly used oral antibiotic regimens has not been studied against clinically relevant pathogens. The objective of this study was to assess the probability of achieving the requisite pharmacodynamic exposure for oral antibacterial regimens commonly prescribed for RTIs in adults against bacterial isolates frequently involved in these processes (S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catharralis). Methods: Using a 5000-subject Monte Carlo simulation, the cumulative fractions of response (CFR), (i.e., probabilities of achieving requisite pharmacodynamic targets) for the most commonly prescribed oral antibiotic regimens, as determined by a structured survey of medical prescription patterns, were assessed against local respiratory bacterial isolates from adults in Sao Paulo collected during the same time period. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 230 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (103), Haemophilus influenzae (98), and Moraxella catharralis (29) from a previous local surveillance were used. Results: The most commonly prescribed antibiotic regimens were azithromycin 500 mg QD, amoxicillin 500 mg TID, and levofloxacin 500 mg QD, accounting for 58% of the prescriptions. Varied doses of these agents, plus gatifloxacin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, moxifloxacin, and cefaclor made up the remaining regimens. Utilizing aggressive pharmacodynamic exposure targets, the only regimens to achieve greater than 90% CFR against all three pathogens were amoxicillin/amoxicillin-clavulanate 500 mg TID (> 91%), gatifloxacin 400 mg QD (100%), and moxifloxacin 400 mg QD (100%). Considering S. pneumoniae isolates alone, azithromycin 1000 mg QD also achieved greater than 90% CFR (91.3%). Conclusions: The only regimens to achieve high CFR against all three pathogen populations in both scenarios were gatifloxacin 400 mg QD, moxifloxacin 400 mg QD, and amoxicillin-clavulanate 500 mg TID. These data suggest the need for reconsideration of empiric antibiotic regimen selection among adult patients with RTIs in the Sao Paulo area. Additionally, this type of study could be used to optimize prescribing patterns in specific regions in light of emerging resistance. (AU)

Processo FAPESP: 09/13825-2 - Probabilidade de obtenção de exposição farmacodinâmica para diversos regimes antimicrobianos de uso comum na cidade de São Paulo contra isolados de Streptococcus pneumoniae do projeto EUREQA
Beneficiário:Carlos Roberto Veiga Kiffer
Linha de fomento: Auxílio à Pesquisa - Apoio a Jovens Pesquisadores