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Observation of the antimatter helium-4 nucleus

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Autor(es):
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Agakishiev, H. [1] ; Aggarwal, M. M. [2] ; Ahammed, Z. [3] ; Alakhverdyants, A. V. [1] ; Alekseev, I. [4] ; Alford, J. [5] ; Anderson, B. D. [5] ; Anson, C. D. [6] ; Arkhipkin, D. [7] ; Averichev, G. S. [1] ; Balewski, J. [8] ; Beavis, D. R. [7] ; Behera, N. K. [9] ; Bellwied, R. [10] ; Betancourt, M. J. [8] ; Betts, R. R. [11] ; Bhasin, A. [12, 13, 14] ; Bhati, A. K. [2] ; Bichsel, H. [15] ; Bielcik, J. [16] ; Bielcikova, J. [17] ; Biritz, B. [18] ; Bland, L. C. [7] ; Bordyuzhin, I. G. [4] ; Borowski, W. [19] ; Bouchet, J. [5] ; Braidot, E. [20, 21] ; Brandin, A. V. [22] ; Bridgeman, A. [23] ; Brovko, S. G. [24] ; Bruna, E. [25] ; Bueltmann, S. [26] ; Bunzarov, I. [1] ; Burton, T. P. [7] ; Cai, X. Z. [27] ; Caines, H. [25] ; Calderon, M. [24] ; Cebra, D. [24] ; Cendejas, R. [18] ; Cervantes, M. C. [12] ; Chajecki, Z. [6] ; Chaloupka, P. [17] ; Chattopadhyay, S. [14] ; Chen, H. F. [28] ; Chen, J. H. [27] ; Chen, J. Y. [29] ; Chen, L. [29] ; Cheng, J. [30] ; Cherney, M. [31] ; Chikanian, A. [25] ; Choi, K. E. [32] ; Christie, W. [7] ; Chung, P. [17] ; Codrington, M. J. M. [12] ; Corliss, R. [8] ; Cramer, J. G. [15] ; Crawford, H. J. ; Leyva, A. Davila [33] ; De Silva, L. C. [10] ; Debbe, R. R. [7] ; Dedovich, T. G. [1] ; Derevschikov, A. A. [34] ; Derradi de Souza, R. [35] ; Didenko, L. [7] ; Djawotho, P. [12] ; Dogra, S. M. [13] ; Dong, X. [3] ; Drachenberg, J. L. [12] ; Draper, J. E. [24] ; Dunlop, C. [7] ; Efimov, L. G. [1] ; Elnimr, M. [36] ; Engelage, J. ; Eppley, G. [37] ; Estienne, M. [19] ; Eun, L. [38] ; Evdokimov, O. [11] ; Fatemi, R. [39] ; Fedorisin, J. [1] ; Fersch, R. G. [39] ; Filip, P. [1] ; Finch, E. [25] ; Fine, V. [7] ; Fisyak, Y. [7] ; Gagliardi, C. A. [12] ; Gangadharan, D. R. [18] ; Geurts, F. [37] ; Ghosh, P. [14] ; Gorbunov, Y. N. [31] ; Gordon, A. [7] ; Grebenyuk, O. G. [3] ; Grosnick, D. [40] ; Guertin, S. M. [18] ; Gupta, A. [13] ; Gupta, S. [13] ; Guryn, W. [7] ; Haag, B. [24] ; Hajkova, O. [16] ; Hamed, A. [12] ; Han, L-X. [27] ; Harris, J. W. [25] ; Hays-Wehle, J. P. [8] ; Heinz, M. [25] ; Heppelmann, S. [38] ; Hirsch, A. [41] ; Hjort, E. [3] ; Hoffmann, G. W. [33] ; Hofman, D. J. [11] ; Huang, B. [28] ; Huang, H. Z. [18] ; Humanic, T. J. [6] ; Huo, L. [12] ; Igo, G. [18] ; Jacobs, P. [3] ; Jacobs, W. [42] ; Jena, C. [43] ; Jin, F. [27] ; Joseph, J. [5] ; Judd, E. G. ; Kabana, S. [19] ; Kang, K. [30] ; Kapitan, J. [17] ; Kauder, K. [11] ; Ke, H. W. [29] ; Keane, D. [5] ; Kechechyan, A. [1] ; Kettler, D. [15] ; Kikola, D. P. [41] ; Kiryluk, J. [3] ; Kisiel, A. [44] ; Kizka, V. [1] ; Klein, S. R. [3] ; Knospe, A. G. [25] ; Koetke, D. D. [40] ; Kollegger, T. [45] ; Konzer, J. [41] ; Koralt, I. [26] ; Koroleva, L. [4] ; Korsch, W. [39] ; Kotchenda, L. [22] ; Kouchpil, V. [17] ; Kravtsov, P. [22] ; Krueger, K. [23] ; Krus, M. [16] ; Kumar, L. [5] ; Kurnadi, P. [18] ; Lamont, M. A. C. [7] ; Landgraf, J. M. [7] ; LaPointe, S. [36] ; Lauret, J. [7] ; Lebedev, A. [7] ; Lednicky, R. [1] ; Lee, J. H. [7] ; Leight, W. [8] ; LeVine, M. J. [7] ; Li, C. [28] ; Li, L. [33] ; Li, N. [29] ; Li, W. [27] ; Li, X. [41, 46] ; Li, Y. [30] ; Li, Z. M. [29] ; Lisa, M. A. [6] ; Liu, F. [29] ; Liu, H. [24] ; Liu, J. ; Ljubicic, T. [7] ; Llope, W. J. [37] ; Longacre, R. S. [7] ; Love, W. A. [7] ; Lu, Y. [28] ; Lukashov, E. V. [22] ; Luo, X. [28] ; Ma, G. L. [27] ; Ma, Y. G. [27] ; Mahapatra, D. P. [43] ; Majka, R. [25] ; Mall, O. I. [24] ; Manweiler, R. [40] ; Margetis, S. [5] ; Markert, C. [33] ; Masui, H. [3] ; Matis, H. S. [3] ; Matulenko, Yu A. [34] ; McDonald, D. [37] ; McShane, T. S. [31] ; Meschanin, A. [34] ; Milner, R. [8] ; Minaev, N. G. [34] ; Mioduszewski, S. [12] ; Mitrovski, M. K. [7] ; Mohammed, Y. [12] ; Mohanty, B. [14] ; Mondal, M. M. [14] ; Morozov, B. [4] ; Morozov, D. A. [34] ; Munhoz, M. G. [47] ; Mustafa, M. K. [41] ; Naglis, M. [3] ; Nandi, B. K. [9] ; Nayak, T. K. [14] ; Netrakanti, P. K. [41] ; Nogach, L. V. [34] ; Nurushev, S. B. [34] ; Odyniec, G. [3] ; Ogawa, A. [7] ; Oh, K. [32] ; Ohlson, A. [25] ; Okorokov, V. [22] ; Oldag, E. W. [33] ; Olson, D. [3] ; Pachr, M. [16] ; Page, B. S. [42] ; Pal, S. K. [12] ; Pandit, Y. [5] ; Panebratsev, Y. [1] ; Pawlak, T. [44] ; Pei, H. [11] ; Peitzmann, T. [20, 21] ; Perkins, C. ; Peryt, W. [44] ; Pile, P. [7] ; Planinic, M. [48] ; Ploskon, M. A. [3] ; Pluta, J. [44] ; Plyku, D. [26] ; Poljak, N. [48] ; Porter, J. [3] ; Poskanzer, A. M. [3] ; Potukuchi, B. V. K. S. [13] ; Powell, C. B. [3] ; Prindle, D. [15] ; Pruneau, C. [36] ; K. Pruthi, N. [2] ; Pujahari, P. R. [9] ; Putschke, J. [25] ; Qiu, H. [49] ; Raniwala, R. [50] ; Raniwala, S. [50] ; Ray, R. L. [33] ; Redwine, R. [8] ; Reed, R. [24] ; Ritter, H. G. [3] ; Roberts, J. B. [37] ; Rogachevskiy, O. V. [1] ; Romero, J. L. [24] ; Ruan, L. [7] ; Rusnak, J. [17] ; Sahoo, N. R. [14] ; Sakrejda, I. [3] ; Salur, S. [24] ; Sandweiss, J. [25] ; Sangaline, E. [24] ; Sarkar, A. [9] ; Schambach, J. [33] ; Scharenberg, R. P. [41] ; Schmah, A. M. [3] ; Schmitz, N. [51] ; Schuster, T. R. [45] ; Seele, J. [8] ; Seger, J. [31] ; Selyuzhenkov, I. [42] ; Seyboth, P. [51] ; Shah, N. [18] ; Shahaliev, E. [1] ; Shao, M. [28] ; Sharma, M. [36] ; Shi, S. S. [29] ; Shou, Q. Y. [27] ; Sichtermann, E. P. [3] ; Simon, F. [51] ; Singaraju, R. N. [14] ; Skoby, M. J. [41] ; Smirnov, N. [25] ; Solanki, D. [50] ; Sorensen, P. [7] ; Spinka, H. M. [23] ; Srivastava, B. [41] ; Stanislaus, T. D. S. [40] ; Staszak, D. [18] ; Steadman, S. G. [8] ; Stevens, J. R. [42] ; Stock, R. [45] ; Strikhanov, M. [22] ; Stringfellow, B. [41] ; Suaide, A. A. P. [47] ; Suarez, M. C. [11] ; Subba, N. L. [5] ; Sumbera, M. [17] ; Sun, X. M. [3] ; Sun, Y. [28] ; Sun, Z. [49] ; Surrow, B. [8] ; Svirida, D. N. [4] ; Symons, T. J. M. [3] ; Szanto de Toledo, A. [47] ; Takahashi, J. [35] ; Tang, A. H. [7] ; Tang, Z. [28] ; Tarini, L. H. [36] ; Tarnowsky, T. [52] ; Thein, D. [33] ; Thomas, J. H. [3] ; Tian, J. [27] ; Timmins, A. R. [10] ; Tlusty, D. [17] ; Tokarev, M. [1] ; Trainor, T. A. [15] ; Trentalange, S. [18] ; Tribble, R. E. [12] ; Tribedy, P. [14] ; Tsai, O. D. [18] ; Ullrich, T. [7] ; Underwood, D. G. [23] ; Van Buren, G. [7] ; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. [8] ; Vanfossen, Jr., J. A. [5] ; Varma, R. [9] ; Vasconcelos, G. M. S. [35] ; Vasiliev, A. N. [34] ; Videbaek, F. [7] ; Viyogi, Y. P. [14] ; Vokal, S. [1] ; Voloshin, S. A. [36] ; Wada, M. [33] ; Walker, M. [8] ; Wang, F. [41] ; Wang, G. [18] ; Wang, H. [52] ; Wang, J. S. [49] ; Wang, Q. [41] ; Wang, X. L. [28] ; Wang, Y. [30] ; Webb, G. [39] ; Webb, J. C. [7] ; Westfall, G. D. [52] ; Whitten, Jr., C. [18] ; Wieman, H. [3] ; Wissink, S. W. [42] ; Witt, R. [53] ; Witzke, W. [39] ; Wu, Y. F. [29] ; Xiao, Z. [30] ; Xie, W. [41] ; Xu, H. [49] ; Xu, N. [29] ; Xu, Q. H. [46] ; Xu, W. [18] ; Xu, Y. [28] ; Xu, Z. [7] ; Xue, L. [27] ; Yang, Y. [29, 49] ; Yepes, P. [37] ; Yip, K. [7] ; Yoo, I-K. [32] ; Zawisza, M. [44] ; Zbroszczyk, H. [44] ; Zhan, W. [49] ; Zhang, J. B. [29] ; Zhang, S. [27] ; Zhang, W. M. [5] ; Zhang, X. P. [30] ; Zhang, Y. [3] ; Zhang, Z. P. [28] ; Zhao, F. [18] ; Zhao, J. [27] ; Zhong, C. [27] ; Zhou, W. [45] ; Zhu, X. [30] ; Zhu, Y. H. [27] ; Zoulkarneev, R. [1] ; Zoulkarneeva, Y. [1] ; Collaboration, STAR
Número total de Autores: 373
Afiliação do(s) autor(es):
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[1] Joint Inst Nucl Res, Dubna 141980 - Russia
[2] Panjab Univ, Chandigarh 160014 - India
[3] Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 - USA
[4] Alikhanov Inst Theoret & Expt Phys, Moscow 117218 - Russia
[5] Kent State Univ, Kent, OH 44242 - USA
[6] Ohio State Univ, Columbus, OH 43210 - USA
[7] Brookhaven Natl Lab, Upton, NY 11973 - USA
[8] MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 - USA
[9] Indian Inst Technol, Bombay 400076, Maharashtra - India
[10] Univ Houston, Houston, TX 77204 - USA
[11] Univ Illinois, Chicago, IL 60607 - USA
[12] Texas A&M Univ, College Stn, TX 77843 - USA
[13] Univ Jammu, Jammu 180001 - India
[14] Variable Energy Cyclotron Ctr, Kolkata 700064 - India
[15] Univ Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 - USA
[16] Czech Tech Univ, FNSPE, Prague 11519 - Czech Republic
[17] Nucl Phys Inst AS CR, Rez 25068 - Czech Republic
[18] Univ Calif Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 - USA
[19] SUBATECH, F-44307 Nantes - France
[20] NIKHEF, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam - Netherlands
[21] Univ Utrecht, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam - Netherlands
[22] Moscow Engn Phys Inst, Moscow 115409 - Russia
[23] Argonne Natl Lab, Argonne, IL 60439 - USA
[24] Univ Calif Davis, Davis, CA 95616 - USA
[25] Yale Univ, New Haven, CT 06520 - USA
[26] Old Dominion Univ, Norfolk, VA 23529 - USA
[27] Shanghai Inst Appl Phys, Shanghai 201800 - Peoples R China
[28] Univ Sci & Technol China, Hefei 230026 - Peoples R China
[29] CCNU HZNU, Inst Particle Phys, Wuhan 430079 - Peoples R China
[30] Tsinghua Univ, Beijing 100084 - Peoples R China
[31] Creighton Univ, Omaha, NE 68178 - USA
[32] Pusan Natl Univ, Pusan 609735 - South Korea
[33] Univ Texas Austin, Austin, TX 78712 - USA
[34] Inst High Energy Phys, Protvino 142281 - Russia
[35] Univ Estadual Campinas, BR-13083859 Sao Paulo - Brazil
[36] Wayne State Univ, Detroit, MI 48201 - USA
[37] Rice Univ, Houston, TX 77251 - USA
[38] Penn State Univ, University Pk, PA 16802 - USA
[39] Univ Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 - USA
[40] Valparaiso Univ, Valparaiso, IN 46383 - USA
[41] Purdue Univ, W Lafayette, IN 47907 - USA
[42] Indiana Univ, Bloomington, IN 47408 - USA
[43] Inst Phys, Bhubaneswar 751005, Orissa - India
[44] Warsaw Univ Technol, PL-00661 Warsaw - Poland
[45] Goethe Univ Frankfurt, D-60325 Frankfurt - Germany
[46] Shandong Univ, Jinan 250100, Shandong - Peoples R China
[47] Univ Sao Paulo, BR-05508090 Sao Paulo - Brazil
[48] Univ Zagreb, HR-10002 Zagreb - Croatia
[49] Inst Modern Phys, Lanzhou 730000 - Peoples R China
[50] Univ Rajasthan, Jaipur 302004, Rajasthan - India
[51] Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich - Germany
[52] Michigan State Univ, E Lansing, MI 48824 - USA
[53] USN Acad, Annapolis, MD 21402 - USA
Número total de Afiliações: 53
Tipo de documento: Artigo Científico
Fonte: Nature; v. 473, n. 7347, p. 353-356, May 2011.
Área do conhecimento: Ciências Exatas e da Terra - Física
Citações Web of Science: 77
Assunto(s):Reações nucleares   Colisões   Átomos   Hélio   Partículas alfa
Resumo

High-energy nuclear collisions create an energy density similar to that of the Universe microseconds after the Big Bang; in both cases, matter and antimatter are formed with comparable abundance. However, the relatively short-lived expansion in nuclear collisions allows antimatter to decouple quickly from matter, and avoid annihilation. Thus, a high-energy accelerator of heavy nuclei provides an efficient means of producing and studying antimatter. The antimatter helium-4 nucleus (), also known as the anti-α (), consists of two antiprotons and two antineutrons (baryon number B = −4). It has not been observed previously, although the α-particle was identified a century ago by Rutherford and is present in cosmic radiation at the ten per cent level. Antimatter nuclei with B < −1 have been observed only as rare products of interactions at particle accelerators, where the rate of antinucleus production in high-energy collisions decreases by a factor of about 1,000 with each additional antinucleon. Here we report the observation of , the heaviest observed antinucleus to date. In total, 18 counts were detected at the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC; ref. 6) in 10<sup>9</sup> recorded gold-on-gold (Au+Au) collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 200 GeV and 62 GeV per nucleon-nucleon pair. The yield is consistent with expectations from thermodynamic and coalescent nucleosynthesis models, providing an indication of the production rate of even heavier antimatter nuclei and a benchmark for possible future observations of in cosmic radiation. (AU)

Processo FAPESP: 11/03164-9 - Investigação das propriedades do plasma de quarks e glúons no RHIC e LHC
Beneficiário:Alexandre Alarcon Do Passo Suaide
Linha de fomento: Auxílio à Pesquisa - Regular
Processo FAPESP: 05/55625-9 - Reações nucleares nos regimes relativístico e astrofísico
Beneficiário:Alejandro Szanto de Toledo
Linha de fomento: Auxílio à Pesquisa - Temático