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Effect of salinity on the metabolism and osmoregulation of selected ontogenetic stages of an amazon population of Macrobrachium amazonicum shrimp (Decapoda, Palaemonidae)

Texto completo
Mazzarelli, C. C. M. [1] ; Santos, M. R. [1] ; Amorim, V, R. [2] ; Augusto, A. [3]
Número total de Autores: 4
Afiliação do(s) autor(es):
[1] V, Univ Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho UN, Ctr Aquicultura UNESP CAUNESP, BR-14884900 Jaboticabal, SP - Brazil
[2] Amorim, R., V, Univ Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho UN, Ctr Aquicultura UNESP CAUNESP, BR-14884900 Jaboticabal, SP - Brazil
[3] Univ Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho UN, BR-11330900 Sao Vicente, SP - Brazil
Número total de Afiliações: 3
Tipo de documento: Artigo Científico
Fonte: Brazilian Journal of Biology; v. 75, n. 2, p. 372-379, MAY 2015.
Citações Web of Science: 6

Probably as a function of their wide geographical distribution, the different population of Macrobrachium amazonicum shrimp may present distinct physiological, biochemical, reproductive, behavioral, and ecological patterns. These differences are so accentuated that the existence of allopatric speciation has been suggested, although initial studies indicate that the genetic variability of populations happen at an intraspecific level. Among the biological responses described for M. amazonicum populations, those regarding osmoregulation and metabolism play a key role for being related to the occupation of diverse habitats. To this effect, we investigated osmoregulation through the role of free amino acids in cell volume control and metabolism, through oxygen consumption in larvae (zoeae I, II, V and IX) and/or post-larvae of a M. amazonicum population from Amazon, kept in aquaculture fish hatcheries in the state of Sao Paulo. The results add information regarding the existence of distinct physiological responses among M. amazonicum populations and suggest that possible adjustments to metabolism and to the use of free amino acids as osmolytes of the regulation of the larvae and post-larvae cell volume depend on the appearance of structures responsible for hemolymph osmoregulation like, for example, the gills. In this respect, we verified that zoeae I do not alter their metabolism due to the exposition to fresh or brackish water, but they reduce intracellular concentration of free amino acids when exposed to fresh water, what may suggest the inexistence or inefficient performance of the structures responsible for volume regulation and hemolymph composition. On the other hand, in zoeae II and V exposed to fresh and brackish water, metabolism alterations were not followed by changes in free amino acids concentration. Thus it is possible, as the structures responsible for osmoregulation and ionic regulation become functional, that the role of free amino acids gets diminished and oxygen consumption elevated, probably due to greater energy expenditure with the active transportation of salts through epithelial membranes. Osmotic challenges also seem to alter throughout development, given that in zoeae II oxygen consumption is elevated on brackish water of 18, but in zoeae V it happens in fresh water. After M. amazonicum metamorphosis, free amino acids begin to play an important role as intracellular osmolytes, because we verified an increase of up to 40% in post-larvae exposed to brackish water of 18. The main free amino acids involved in cell volume regulation of ontogenetic stages evaluated were the non essential ones: glutamic acid, glycine, alanine, arginine, and proline. Interestingly, larvae from estuarine population studied here survived until the zoeae V stage in fresh water, but in some populations far from the sea, zoeae die right after eclosion in fresh water or they do not reach zoeae III stage. In addition, given that in favorable conditions caridean shrimp larvae shorten their development, we may infer that the cultivation environment, in which larvae developed in the present work, was appropriate, because almost all zoeae VIII kept on brackish water underwent metamorphosis directly to post-larvae and did not go through zoeae IX stage. (AU)

Processo FAPESP: 07/56553-7 - Avaliação do balanço energético em estágios ontogenéticos selecionados do camarão-da-amazônia Macrobrachium amazonicum
Beneficiário:Alessandra da Silva Augusto
Linha de fomento: Bolsas no Brasil - Pós-Doutorado