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(Referência obtida automaticamente do Web of Science, por meio da informação sobre o financiamento pela FAPESP e o número do processo correspondente, incluída na publicação pelos autores.)

Macroecological trends in nestedness and modularity of seed-dispersal networks: human impact matters

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Autor(es):
Sebastian-Gonzalez, Esther [1] ; Dalsgaard, Bo [2] ; Sandel, Brody [3] ; Guimaraes, Jr., Paulo R. [1]
Número total de Autores: 4
Afiliação do(s) autor(es):
[1] Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Biociencias, Dept Ecol, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo - Brazil
[2] Univ Copenhagen, Nat Hist Museum Denmark, Ctr Macroecol Evolut & Climate, DK-2100 Copenhagen O - Denmark
[3] Aarhus Univ, Dept Biosci, DK-8000 Aarhus C - Denmark
Número total de Afiliações: 3
Tipo de documento: Artigo Científico
Fonte: GLOBAL ECOLOGY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY; v. 24, n. 3, p. 293-303, MAR 2015.
Citações Web of Science: 39
Resumo

AimWe aim to characterize the macroecological patterns in the structure of mutualistic seed-dispersal networks. Tropical areas hold more species than temperate ones. This difference in species number may favour ecological processes that minimize interspecific competition in species-rich areas. There is theoretical evidence that both modularity (i.e. the presence of semi-independent groups of highly interacting species) and nestedness (i.e. specialists interact with a subset of the species interacting with generalists) reduce the effects of competition. Thus, we expect high degrees of modularity or nestedness at low latitudes in seed-dispersal networks. Moreover, we test whether climate, topography and human impact influence network structure. LocationThirty-four qualitative and 21 weighted seed-dispersal interaction networks located world-wide. MethodsWe related the degree of modularity and nestedness of seed-dispersal interaction networks with latitude. To disentangle the macroecological drivers of network structure, we also associated modularity/nestedness with species richness, altitudinal range, human impact and an array of climate predictors: precipitation, temperature, precipitation/temperature seasonality and historical climate-change velocity and anomaly. ResultsBinary networks showed stronger macroecological patterns than weighted networks. Latitude was unrelated to the structure of seed-dispersal networks, but more nested assemblages were species rich and were located in areas with a high degree of human impact, high temperature seasonality, low precipitation, and, especially on the mainland, high stability in precipitation. Modular networks were species rich and found in areas with low human impact. For both nestedness and modularity, the effects of species richness and human impact were especially strong and consistent. Main conclusionsAs for previous macroecological studies of mutualistic networks, we found that the structure of seed-dispersal assemblages was related to current and historical climate. The largest influences on nestedness and modularity, however, were the number of competing species and the degree of human impact. This suggests that human disturbance, not just climate, is an important factor determining the structure of a seed-dispersal network. (AU)

Processo FAPESP: 11/17968-2 - Variabilidade estrutural e geográfica em redes mutualísticas de plantas e aves frugívoras
Beneficiário:Esther Sebastián González
Linha de fomento: Bolsas no Brasil - Pós-Doutorado