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Aircraft observations of the chemical composition and aging of aerosol in the Manaus urban plume during GoAmazon 2014/5

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Shilling, John E. [1] ; Pekour, Mikhail S. [1] ; Fortner, Edward C. [2] ; Artaxo, Paulo [3] ; de Sa, Suzane [4] ; Hubbe, John M. [1] ; Longo, Karla M. [5] ; Machado, Luiz A. T. [6] ; Martin, Scot T. [4, 7] ; Springston, Stephen R. [8] ; Tomlinson, Jason [1] ; Wang, Jian [8]
Número total de Autores: 12
Afiliação do(s) autor(es):
[1] Pacific Northwest Natl Lab, Atmospher Sci & Global Change Div, Richland, WA 99352 - USA
[2] Aerodyne Res, Ctr Aerosol & Cloud Chem, Billerica, MA - USA
[3] Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Phys, Sao Paulo - Brazil
[4] Harvard Univ, John A Paulson Sch Engn & Appl Sci, Cambridge, MA 02138 - USA
[5] NASA, USRA, GESTAR, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Columbia, MD - USA
[6] Inst Nacl Pesquisas Espaciais, Ctr Previsao Tempo & Estudos Climat, Sao Jose Dos Campos - Brazil
[7] Harvard Univ, Dept Earth & Planetary Sci, 20 Oxford St, Cambridge, MA 02138 - USA
[8] Brookhaven Natl Lab, Environm & Climate Sci Dept, Upton, NY 11973 - USA
Número total de Afiliações: 8
Tipo de documento: Artigo Científico
Fonte: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics; v. 18, n. 14, p. 10773-10797, JUL 30 2018.
Citações Web of Science: 4

The Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon 2014/5) campaign, conducted from January 2014 to December 2015 in the vicinity of Manaus, Brazil, was designed to study the aerosol life cycle and aerosol-cloud interactions in both pristine and anthropogenically influenced conditions. As part of this campaign, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Gulf-stream 1 (G-1) research aircraft was deployed from 17 February to 25 March 2014 (wet season) and 6 September to 5 October 2014 (dry season) to investigate aerosol and cloud properties aloft. Here, we present results from the G-1 deployments focusing on measurements of the aerosol chemical composition and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and aging. In the first portion of the paper, we provide an overview of the data and compare and contrast the data from the wet and dry season. Organic aerosol (OA) dominates the deployment-averaged chemical composition, comprising 80% of the non-refractory PM1 aerosol mass, with sulfate comprising 14 %, nitrate 2 %, and ammonium 4 %. This product distribution was unchanged between seasons, despite the fact that total aerosol loading was significantly higher in the dry season and that regional and local biomass burning was a significant source of OA mass in the dry, but not wet, season. However, the OA was more oxidized in the dry season, with the median of the mean carbon oxidation state increasing from -0.45 in the wet season to -0.02 in the dry season. In the second portion of the paper, we discuss the evolution of the Manaus plume, focusing on 13 March 2014, one of the exemplary days in the wet season. On this flight, we observe a clear increase in OA concentrations in the Manaus plume relative to the background. As the plume is transported downwind and ages, we observe dynamic changes in the OA. The mean carbon oxidation state of the OA increases from -0.6 to -0.45 during the 4-5 h of photochemical aging. Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) mass is lost, with Delta HOA/Delta CO values decreasing from 17.6 mu g m(-3) ppmv(-1) over Manaus to 10.6 mu g m(-3) ppmv(-1) 95 km downwind. Loss of HOA is balanced out by formation of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA), with Delta OOA/Delta CO increasing from 9.2 to 23.1 mu g m(-3) ppmv(-1). Because hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) loss is balanced by OOA formation, we observe little change in the net Delta org/Delta CO values; Delta org/Delta CO averages 31 mu g m(3) ppmv(-1) and does not increase with aging. Analysis of the Manaus plume evolution using data from two additional flights in the wet season showed similar trends in Delta org/Delta CO to the 13 March flight; Delta org/Delta CO values averaged 34 mu g m(3) ppmv(-1) and showed little change over 4-6.5 h of aging. Our observation of constant Delta org/Delta CO are in contrast to literature studies of the outflow of several North American cities, which report significant increases in Delta org/Delta CO for the first day of plume aging. These observations suggest that SOA formation in the Manaus plume occurs, at least in part, by a different mechanism than observed in urban outflow plumes in most other literature studies. Constant Delta org/Delta CO with plume aging has been observed in many biomass burning plumes, but we are unaware of reports of fresh urban emissions aging in this manner. These observations show that urban pollution emitted from Manaus in the wet season forms less particulate downwind as it ages than urban pollution emitted from North American cities. (AU)

Processo FAPESP: 17/17047-0 - O ciclo de vida de aerossóis e nuvens na Amazônia: emissões biogênicas, emissões de queimadas e impactos no ecossistema
Beneficiário:Paulo Eduardo Artaxo Netto
Linha de fomento: Auxílio à Pesquisa - Programa de Pesquisa sobre Mudanças Climáticas Globais - Temático
Processo FAPESP: 13/05014-0 - GoAmazon: interação da pluma urbana de Manaus com emissões biogênicas da Floresta Amazônica
Beneficiário:Paulo Eduardo Artaxo Netto
Linha de fomento: Auxílio à Pesquisa - Programa de Pesquisa sobre Mudanças Climáticas Globais - Temático