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(Referência obtida automaticamente do Web of Science, por meio da informação sobre o financiamento pela FAPESP e o número do processo correspondente, incluída na publicação pelos autores.)

Optical and geometrical properties of cirrus clouds in Amazonia derived from 1 year of ground-based lidar measurements

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Autor(es):
Gouveia, Diego A. ; Barja, Boris ; Barbosa, Henrique M. J. ; Seifert, Patric ; Baars, Holger ; Pauliquevis, Theotonio ; Artaxo, Paulo
Número total de Autores: 7
Tipo de documento: Artigo Científico
Fonte: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics; v. 17, n. 5, p. 3619-3636, MAR 15 2017.
Citações Web of Science: 6
Resumo

Cirrus clouds cover a large fraction of tropical latitudes and play an important role in Earth's radiation budget. Their optical properties, altitude, vertical and horizontal coverage control their radiative forcing, and hence detailed cirrus measurements at different geographical locations are of utmost importance. Studies reporting cirrus properties over tropical rain forests like the Amazon, however, are scarce. Studies with satellite profilers do not give information on the diurnal cycle, and the satellite imagers do not report on the cloud vertical structure. At the same time, ground-based lidar studies are restricted to a few case studies. In this paper, we derive the first comprehensive statistics of optical and geometrical properties of upper-tropospheric cirrus clouds in Amazonia. We used 1 year (July 2011 to June 2012) of ground-based lidar atmospheric observations north of Manaus, Brazil. This dataset was processed by an automatic cloud detection and optical properties retrieval algorithm. Uppertropospheric cirrus clouds were observed more frequently than reported previously for tropical regions. The frequency of occurrence was found to be as high as 88% during the wet season and not lower than 50% during the dry season. The diurnal cycle shows a minimum around local noon and maximum during late afternoon, associated with the diurnal cycle of precipitation. The mean values of cirrus cloud top and base heights, cloud thickness, and cloud optical depth were 14.3 +/- 1.9 (SD) km, 12.9 +/- 2.2 km, 1.4 +/- 1.1 km, and 0.25 +/- 0.46, respectively. Cirrus clouds were found at tem-peratures down to 90 degrees C. Frequently cirrus were observed within the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), which are likely associated to slow mesoscale uplifting or to the remnants of overshooting convection. The vertical distribution was not uniform, and thin and subvisible cirrus occurred more frequently closer to the tropopause. The mean lidar ratio was 23.3 +/- 8.0 sr. However, for subvisible cirrus clouds a bimodal distribution with a secondary peak at about 44 sr was found suggesting a mixed composition. A dependence of the lidar ratio with cloud temperature (altitude) was not found, indicating that the clouds are vertically well mixed. The frequency of occurrence of cirrus clouds classified as subvisible (tau < 0 : 03) were 41.6 %, whilst 37.8% were thin cirrus (0 : 03 < tau < 0 : 3) and 20.5% opaque cirrus (tau > 0 : 3). Hence, in central Amazonia not only a high frequency of cirrus clouds occurs, but also a large fraction of subvisible cirrus clouds. This high frequency of subvisible cirrus clouds may contaminate aerosol optical depth measured by sun photometers and satellite sensors to an unknown extent. (AU)

Processo FAPESP: 12/16100-1 - Propriedades ópticas de nuvens na Amazônia a partir de medidas com LIDAR e radiômetro
Beneficiário:Henrique de Melo Jorge Barbosa
Linha de fomento: Auxílio à Pesquisa - Pesquisador Visitante - Internacional
Processo FAPESP: 13/05014-0 - GoAmazon: interação da pluma urbana de Manaus com emissões biogênicas da Floresta Amazônica
Beneficiário:Paulo Eduardo Artaxo Netto
Linha de fomento: Auxílio à Pesquisa - Programa de Pesquisa sobre Mudanças Climáticas Globais - Temático
Processo FAPESP: 09/15235-8 - Processos de nuvens associados aos principais sistemas precipitantes no Brasil: uma contribuição à modelagem da escala de nuvens e ao GPM (Medida Global de Precipitação)
Beneficiário:Luiz Augusto Toledo Machado
Linha de fomento: Auxílio à Pesquisa - Temático
Processo FAPESP: 13/50510-5 - Pesquisa colaborativa Brasil-EUA: modificações causadas pela poluição antrópica na química da atmosfera e na microfísica de partículas da floresta tropical durante as campanhas intensivas do GoAmazon
Beneficiário:Henrique de Melo Jorge Barbosa
Linha de fomento: Auxílio à Pesquisa - Programa de Pesquisa sobre Mudanças Climáticas Globais - Regular