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(Referência obtida automaticamente do Web of Science, por meio da informação sobre o financiamento pela FAPESP e o número do processo correspondente, incluída na publicação pelos autores.)

Nitrogen Transformations in Flowpaths Leading from Soils to Streams in Amazon Forest and Pasture

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Autor(es):
Chaves, Joaquin [1, 2] ; Neill, Christopher [1] ; Germer, Sonja [3] ; Neto, Sergio Gouveia [4] ; Krusche, Alex V. [4] ; Bonilla, Adriana Castellanos [4] ; Elsenbeer, Helmut [3]
Número total de Autores: 7
Afiliação do(s) autor(es):
[1] Marine Biol Lab, Ctr Ecosyst, Woods Hole, MA 02543 - USA
[2] Brown Univ, Dept Ecol & Evolut Biol, Providence, RI 02912 - USA
[3] Univ Potsdam, Inst Geookol, Potsdam - Germany
[4] USP, CENA, Lab Ecol Isotop, Piracicaba, SP - Brazil
Número total de Afiliações: 4
Tipo de documento: Artigo Científico
Fonte: ECOSYSTEMS; v. 12, n. 6, p. 961-972, SEP 2009.
Citações Web of Science: 26
Resumo

The modification of large areas of tropical forest to agricultural uses has consequences for the movement of inorganic nitrogen (N) from land to water. Various biogeochemical pathways in soils and riparian zones can influence the movement and retention of N within watersheds and affect the quantity exported in streams. We used the concentrations of NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+) in different hydrological flowpaths leading from upland soils to streams to investigate inorganic N transformations in adjacent watersheds containing tropical forest and established cattle pasture in the southwestern Brazilian Amazon Basin. High NO(3)(-) concentrations in forest soil solution relative to groundwater indicated a large removal of N mostly as NO(3)(-) in flowpaths leading from soil to groundwater. Forest ground water NO(3)(-) concentrations were lower than in other Amazon sites where riparian zones have been implicated as important N sinks. Based on water budgets for these watersheds, we estimated that 7.3-10.3 kg N ha(-1) y(-1) was removed from flowpaths between 20 and 100 cm, and 7.1-10.2 kg N ha(-1) y(-1) was removed below 100 cm and the top of the groundwater. N removal from vertical flowpaths in forest exceeded previously measured N(2)O emissions of 3.0 kg N ha(-1) y(-1) and estimated emissions of NO of 1.4 kg N ha(-1) y(-1). Potential fates for this large amount of nitrate removal in forest soils include plant uptake, denitrification, and abiotic N retention. Conversion to pasture shifted the system from dominance by processes producing and consuming NO(3)(-) to one dominated by NH(4)(+), presumably the product of lower rates of net N mineralization and net nitrification in pasture compared with forest. In pasture, no hydrological flowpaths contained substantial amounts of NO(3)(-) and estimated N removal from soil vertical flowpaths was 0.2 kg N ha(-1) y(-1) below the depth of 100 cm. This contrasts with the extent to which agricultural sources dominate N inputs to groundwater and stream water in many temperate regions. This could change, however, if pasture agriculture in the tropics shifts toward intensive crop cultivation. (AU)

Processo FAPESP: 03/13172-2 - O papel dos sistemas fluviais amazônicos no balanço regional e global de carbono: evasão de CO2 e interações entre os ambientes terrestres e aquáticos
Beneficiário:Reynaldo Luiz Victória
Linha de fomento: Auxílio à Pesquisa - Temático