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Loss of male secondary sexual structures in allopatry in the Neotropical butterfly genus Arcas (Lycaenidae: Iheclinae: Eumaeini)

Texto completo
Robbins, Robert K. [1] ; Martins, Ananda Regina P. [2] ; Busby, Robert C. ; Duarte, Marcelo [3]
Número total de Autores: 4
Afiliação do(s) autor(es):
[1] Smithsonian Inst, Dept Entomol, Washington, DC 20013 - USA
[2] Univ Fed Maranhao, Dept Biol, BR-65085580 Sao Luis, MA - Brazil
[3] Univ Sao Paulo, Museu Zool, BR-04263000 Sao Paulo - Brazil
Número total de Afiliações: 3
Tipo de documento: Artigo Científico
Fonte: Insect Systematics and Evolution; v. 43, n. 1, p. 35-65, 2012.
Citações Web of Science: 8

Male secondary sexual characters in Lepidoptera may be present or absent in species that otherwise appear to be closely related, an observation that has led to differences of opinion over the taxonomic usefulness of these structures above the species level. An evolutionary issue raised by this debate is whether male secondary sexual characters (1) can be regained after being lost evolutionarily, (2) are not lost after being evolved, or (3) are `switched on and off' by genes that regulate development. A second evolutionary issue is the conditions under which male secondary sexual characters might be lost or gained evolutionarily. Because these structures are thought to promote species recognition, theory predicts evolutionary losses to be most likely in allopatry; evolutionary gains to be most likely during the process of secondarily establishing sympatry or during sympatric speciation. We updated the species-level taxonomy of the brilliant emerald winged Neotropical lycaenid butterfly genus Arcas and performed an analysis of phylogenetic relations among species to assess these evolutionary issues. We morphologically detail a scent pouch on the ventral hindwing of Areas and report that six species possess the pouch with androconia, one possesses the pouch without androconia, and the remaining two species have neither pouch nor androconia. In addition, eight Areas species have a morphologically species-specific male forewing scent pad, and one lacks a scent pad. This variation appears to be the result of three evolutionary losses and no gains of male secondary sexual organs. The four Areas species lacking a scent pouch or a scent pad are allopatric with their closest phylogenetic relatives while four of five with both of these structures are sympatric. Although Arcas is a small genus, these results are significantly more extreme than predicted by chance. For taxonomy, this study provides a rationale for the evolutionary loss of male secondary sexual structures and suggests that their absence, but itself, does not indicate a lack of relationship above the species level. (AU)

Processo FAPESP: 03/13985-3 - Robert Kanner Robbins | Smithsonian Institution - Estados Unidos
Beneficiário:Marcelo Duarte da Silva
Linha de fomento: Auxílio à Pesquisa - Pesquisador Visitante - Internacional
Processo FAPESP: 02/13898-0 - Sistemática, bionomia e evolução dos Lepidoptera neotropicais
Beneficiário:Marcelo Duarte da Silva
Linha de fomento: Auxílio à Pesquisa - Apoio a Jovens Pesquisadores
Processo FAPESP: 10/14682-8 - Biossistemática de Lycaenidae (Insecta: Lepidoptera) dos remanescentes de Mata Atlântica, com ênfase para a Região Sudeste do Brasil
Beneficiário:Marcelo Duarte da Silva
Linha de fomento: Auxílio à Pesquisa - Regular
Processo FAPESP: 11/50225-3 - História natural, filogenia e conservação de lepidópteros neotropicais
Beneficiário:André Victor Lucci Freitas
Linha de fomento: Auxílio à Pesquisa - Programa BIOTA - Regular