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Morphogenetic characterisation, date of divergence, and evolutionary relationships of malaria vectors Anopheles cruzii and Anopheles homunculus

Texto completo
Lorenz, Camila [1, 2] ; Patane, Jose S. L. [3, 2] ; Suesdek, Lincoln [1, 2, 4]
Número total de Autores: 3
Afiliação do(s) autor(es):
[1] Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Ciencias Biomed, Biol Relacao Patogenohospedeiro, BR-05508000 Sao Paulo - Brazil
[2] Inst Butantan, Lab Parasitol, BR-05509300 Sao Paulo - Brazil
[3] Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Quim, Dept Bioquim, BR-05508000 Sao Paulo - Brazil
[4] Inst Med Trop, BR-05403000 Sao Paulo - Brazil
Número total de Afiliações: 4
Tipo de documento: Artigo Científico
Fonte: INFECTION GENETICS AND EVOLUTION; v. 35, p. 144-152, OCT 2015.
Citações Web of Science: 4

The mosquito species Anopheles cruzii and Anopheles homunculus are co-occurring vectors for etiological agents of malaria in southeastern Brazil, a region known to be a major epidemic spot for malaria outside Amazon region. We sought to better understand the biology of these species in order to contribute to future control efforts by (1) improving species identification, which is complicated by the fact that the females are very similar, (2) investigating genetic composition and morphological differences between the species, (3) inferring their phylogenetic histories in comparison with those of other Anophelinae, and (4) dating the evolutionary divergence of the two species. To characterise the species we used wing geometry and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene as morphological and genetic markers, respectively. We also used the genes white, 28S, ITS2, Cytb, and COI in our phylogenetic and dating analyses. A comparative analysis of wing thin-plate splines revealed species-specific wing venation patterns, and the species An. cruzii showed greater morphological diversity (8.74) than An. homunculus (5.58). Concerning the COI gene, An. cruzii was more polymorphic and also showed higher haplotype diversity than An. homunculus, with many rare haplotypes that were displayed by only a few specimens. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that all tree topologies converged and showed {[}Anopheles bellator + An. homunculus] and {[}Anopheles laneanus + An. cruzii] as sister clades. Diversification within the subgenus Kerteszia occurred 2-14.2 million years ago. The landmark data associated with wing shape were consistent with the molecular phylogeny, indicating that this character can distinguish higher level phylogenetic relationships within the Anopheles group. Despite their morphological similarities and cooccurrence, An. cruzii and An. homunculus show consistent differences. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the species are not sister-groups but species that recently diverged within the Kerteszia group, perhaps concomitantly with the radiation of bromeliads in South America or during the Pleistocene climate oscillations. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. (AU)

Processo FAPESP: 13/05521-9 - Caracterização de padrões macroevolutivos em Culicidae (Diptera) mediante morfometria geométrica, sequenciamento genético e espectrometria de massa
Beneficiário:Camila Lorenz
Linha de fomento: Bolsas no Brasil - Doutorado