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A genomic case study of desmoplastic small round cell tumor: comprehensive analysis reveals insights into potential therapeutic targets and development of a monitoring tool for a rare and aggressive disease

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Ferreira, Elisa Napolitano ; Figueiredo Barros, Bruna Duraes ; de Souza, Jorge Estefano ; Almeida, Renan Valieris ; Torrezan, Giovana Tardin ; Garcia, Sheila ; Victorino Krepischi, Ana Cristina ; Lopes de Mello, Celso Abdon ; da Cunha, Isabela Werneck ; Lopes Pinto, Clovis Antonio ; Soares, Fernando Augusto ; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel ; Lopes, Ademar ; de Souza, Sandro Jose ; Carraro, Dirce Maria
Número total de Autores: 15
Tipo de documento: Artigo Científico
Fonte: HUMAN GENOMICS; v. 10, NOV 18 2016.
Citações Web of Science: 3

Background: Genome-wide profiling of rare tumors is crucial for improvement of diagnosis, treatment, and, consequently, achieving better outcomes. Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare type of sarcoma arising from mesenchymal cells of abdominal peritoneum that usually develops in male adolescents and young adults. A specific translocation, t(11; 22)(p13; q12), resulting in EWS and WT1 gene fusion is the only recurrent molecular hallmark and no other genetic factor has been associated to this aggressive tumor. Here, we present a comprehensive genomic profiling of one DSRCT affecting a 26-year-old male, who achieved an excellent outcome. Methods: We investigated somatic and germline variants through whole-exome sequencing using a family based approach and, by array CGH, we explored the occurrence of genomic imbalances. Additionally, we performed mate-paired whole-genome sequencing for defining the specific breakpoint of the EWS-WT1 translocation, allowing us to develop a personalized tumor marker for monitoring the patient by liquid biopsy. Results: We identified genetic variants leading to protein alterations including 12 somatic and 14 germline events (11 germline compound heterozygous mutations and 3 rare homozygous polymorphisms) affecting genes predominantly involved in mesenchymal cell differentiation pathways. Regarding copy number alterations (CNA) few events were detected, mainly restricted to gains in chromosomes 5 and 18 and losses at 11p, 13q, and 22q. The deletions at 11p and 22q indicated the presence of the classic translocation, t(11; 22)(p13; q12). In addition, the mapping of the specific genomic breakpoint of the EWS-WT1 gene fusion allowed the design of a personalized biomarker for assessing circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in plasma during patient follow-up. This biomarker has been used in four post-treatment blood samples, 3 years after surgery, and no trace of EWS-WT1 gene fusion was detected, in accordance with imaging tests showing no evidence of disease and with the good general health status of the patient. Conclusions: Overall, our findings revealed genes with potential to be associated with risk assessment and tumorigenesis of this rare type of sarcoma. Additionally, we established a liquid biopsy approach for monitoring patient follow-up based on genomic information that can be similarly adopted for patients diagnosed with a rare tumor. (AU)

Processo FAPESP: 13/23277-8 - Aspectos moleculares envolvidos no risco, desenvolvimento e progressão do carcinoma ductal de mama: busca de novos genes de susceptibilidade e investigação da progressão do carcinoma in situ e do papel da mutação em BRCA1 no tumor triplo negativo
Beneficiário:Dirce Maria Carraro
Linha de fomento: Auxílio à Pesquisa - Temático