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(Referência obtida automaticamente do Web of Science, por meio da informação sobre o financiamento pela FAPESP e o número do processo correspondente, incluída na publicação pelos autores.)

Assessment of the Removal Capacity, Tolerance, and Anatomical Adaptation of Different Plant Species to Benzene Contamination

Texto completo
Autor(es):
Campos, V. [1, 2] ; Souto, L. S. [3] ; Medeiros, T. A. M. [1] ; Toledo, S. P. [4] ; Sayeg, I. J. [5] ; Ramos, R. L. [6] ; Shinzato, M. C. [6]
Número total de Autores: 7
Afiliação do(s) autor(es):
[1] Univ Estadual Paulista, UNESP, Sao Paulo - Brazil
[2] Univ Sao Paulo, CEPEMA, Ctr Capacitacao & Pesquisa Meio Ambiente, Sao Paulo - Brazil
[3] Univ Fed Sao Carlos, UFSCar, BR-13560 Sao Carlos, SP - Brazil
[4] Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Fis, BR-01498 Sao Paulo - Brazil
[5] Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Geociencias, BR-01498 Sao Paulo - Brazil
[6] Univ Fed Sao Paulo, Inst Ciencias Ambientais Quim & Farmaceut, Sao Paulo - Brazil
Número total de Afiliações: 6
Tipo de documento: Artigo Científico
Fonte: WATER AIR AND SOIL POLLUTION; v. 225, n. 8 AUG 2014.
Citações Web of Science: 5
Resumo

The medium most directly affected by anthropic contamination is soil and, hence, groundwater (saturated and unsaturated zones). In the phytoremediation process, the direct absorption of soil contaminants through the roots is a surprising pollutant removal mechanism. Plants can act as a natural filter of shallow groundwater contamination, controlling and reducing the vertical percolation of contaminants into the soil, and after reaching the level of the water table, the roots can absorb contaminants dissolved in the water, thus reducing the size of the plume and protecting receptor sites (water supply wells, rivers, lakes) from possible contamination. In the first phase of the research, assays were performed to evaluate the tolerance of plant species to the direct injection of a benzene solution into the roots. Subsequent experiments involved direct absorption and spraying. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential for tolerance and reaction to high levels of benzene. Three plant species were used, an herbaceous ornamental plant (Impatiens walleriana), a fern (Pteris vittata), and forage grass (Brachiaria brizantha). At the end of the study, the surface changes caused by VOCs (aerial structures) of benzene were evaluated, using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) to identify possible mechanisms of resistance of the plant to air pollution, i.e., hydrocarbon pollution. The plant material used here was young plant species selected for study. For the analysis by gas chromatography (GC), the plant material was separated into aerial (stem, leaves, and flowers) and underground parts (roots). A comparison of the benzene content in different parts of the plant indicated a higher concentration in the stem+leaves, followed by the roots, which is justified by its translocation inside the plant. P. vittata showed low uptake (5.88 %) mainly in the root and (<2 %) in the leaves, which was also observed in the tolerance experiment, in which visual symptoms of toxicity were not observed. I. walleriana showed benzene removal rates of approximately 18.7 % (injection into the soil) as a result of direct absorption through the roots. After the treatment was suspended, I. walleriana gradually reacted to the detoxification process by recovering its stem stiffness and normal color. B. brizantha showed intermediate behavior and did not react to the detoxification process. (AU)

Processo FAPESP: 12/08337-1 - "Avaliação de superfícies foliares contaminadas por hidrocarbonetos voláteis"
Beneficiário:Thaís Nayara Fogaça da Rocha
Linha de fomento: Bolsas no Brasil - Iniciação Científica
Processo FAPESP: 12/05982-3 - Ensaios de remediação de orgânicos in situ pelo sistema solo-planta
Beneficiário:Júlia Koury Ferreira
Linha de fomento: Bolsas no Brasil - Iniciação Científica
Processo FAPESP: 12/05595-0 - O uso de espécies vegetais como agente despoluidor de compostos orgânicos
Beneficiário:Suzana de Paula Queiroz Kraus
Linha de fomento: Bolsas no Brasil - Iniciação Científica
Processo FAPESP: 12/24832-2 - Biohydrology Conference 2013 - Bio meets Hydrology "Water for Life
Beneficiário:Valquiria de Campos
Linha de fomento: Auxílio à Pesquisa - Reunião - Exterior