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Molecular modeling of the voltammetric oxidation at a glassy carbon electrode of the antimalarial drug primaquine and its prodrugs succinylprimaquine and maleylprimaquine

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La-Scalea, Mauro A. ; Menezes, Carla M. S. ; Matsutami, Guilherme C. ; Polli, Michelle C. ; Serrano, Sílvia H. P. ; Ferreira, Elizabeth I. [6]
Número total de Autores: 6
Tipo de documento: Artigo Científico
Fonte: Electrochimica Acta; v. 51, n. 24, p. 5103-5111, July 2006.
Área do conhecimento: Ciências da Saúde - Farmácia
Assunto(s):Antimaláricos   Primaquina

The 8-aminoquinoline primaquine (PQ) is the only antimalarial drug used as tissue schizonticide and relapsing malaria. Antichagasic activity was also reported. Nevertheless, as it also shows serious side effects, prodrugs such as succinyl and maleyl derivatives have been proposed to decrease its toxicity. Although PQ mechanism of action has not been completely elucidated, the promotion of oxidative stress is an advanced hypothesis that could explain its activity in both plasmodia and trypanosome parasites. The oxidation of PQ and its prodrugs, maleylprimaquine (MPQ) and succinylprimaquine (SPQ), was studied by cyclic voltammetry using glassy carbon electrode. All compounds were oxidized in aqueous medium, with the charge transfer process being pH-dependent in acidic medium and pH-independent in a weak basic medium, being the neutral form more easily oxidized. This indicated that the protonation of the nitrogen atoms displays a determinant role in the voltammetric oxidation, being both prodrugs more easily oxidized than PQ protonated forms, in the order: SPQ < MPQ < PQ. For a better understanding of this behavior, a molecular modeling study was performed using the AM1 semi-empirical method from Spartan 04 for Linux (v.119, Wavefunction Inc.). The medium pH showed to be fundamental not only to the electronic density of the quinoline ring but also to the rearrangement of the nitrogen side chain. The electronic density of primaquine non-protonated quinoline ring is higher than that in its protonated and diprotonated species. Also, the use of prodrugs and the degree of saturation of the carriers (maleic or succinic acid) interfere with this feature. SPQ and MPQ have a slight increase in the quinoline electronic density in comparison to PQ Nevertheless, the carrier in the side chain of SPQ is closer to the quinoline ring than it is in MPQ, which accounts for the higher electronic density in the former. The most significant effect occurs in the correspondent protonated forms of the nitrogen quinoline. The application of molecular modeling study associated to voltammetric techniques showed to be an important way to understand the redox mechanism of electroactive drugs. These results may be related to a biological activity and can be useful to future primaquine derivatives design. (AU)

Processo FAPESP: 03/10763-0 - Estudos de compostos nitro-heterocíclicos potencialmente antichagásicos
Beneficiário:Mauro Aquiles La Scalea
Linha de fomento: Auxílio à Pesquisa - Programa Primeiros Projetos
Processo FAPESP: 01/01192-3 - Antichagásicos potenciais derivados de compostos nitro-heterocíclicos
Beneficiário:Elizabeth Igne Ferreira
Linha de fomento: Auxílio à Pesquisa - Temático
Processo FAPESP: 01/09418-0 - Estudo do comportamento voltamétrico de nitro-heterocíclicos com atividade antichagásica
Beneficiário:Mauro Aquiles La Scalea
Linha de fomento: Bolsas no Brasil - Pós-Doutorado