The mammalian pineal gland is a neuroendocrine organ regulated by environmental photoperiod. The main innervation of pineal gland that regulates melatonin synthesis consists of fibers from the sympathetic superior cervical ganglion (Kappers, 1960; Reuss, 1999) which, by releasing noradrenaline (Wurtman et al, 1967; Drijfhout et al., 1996), activates receptors ±1 and b1 andrenergic resulting in the production of nocturnal melatonin. The ATP co-released with norepinephrine binds to receptors P2Y1 enhancing the production of the precursor N-acetilserotonina induced by activation of b1-adrenoceptor (Mortani-Barbosa et al., 2000, Ferreira et al., 2001, 2003).Melatonin, a hormone produced and released by this gland, plays an important role as a marker of the dark and synchronizer of endogenous rhythms and functions to environmental variations (Pandi-Perumal et al., 2008) but also has a wide range of actions, including immune system where plays a bimodal role. Data from our laboratory have shown that LPS of gram negative bacteria increase the production of serotonin and inhibit production of melatonin and N-acetilserotonina induced by noradrenaline in pineal glands in culture (Silveira Cross-Machado et al., 2010).The purinergic signaling plays an important role in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological processes, and its functional responses is regulated by a series of "cross-talks" with second messengers (Franke and Illes, 2006), including being recognized by immune cells and triggering various inflammatory responses.At end, we have subsidies to think that ATP may be involved in controlling the response of the gland in case of injury.
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